General Psychology, Week 4 Notes
General Psychology, Week 4 Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ali Friedman on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Georgetown University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgetown University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Week of 2/2: Lectures on Perception and Memory Lecture #5 on 2/2: Perception I. Sensation and Perception Sensation begins w a sensory event transduction (picks up what kind of info it is and how much of it is there) sensation (signal detection) perception Sensation: o Just noticeable differences necessary for sensation o Sensitivity for a stimulus: the odds that you’re going to detect a stimulus o Threshold= whether you’re more likely to air on the side of hits or misses o Nativism: sensory information that we’re taking in is only a small part of what we’re interpreting Perception: organization and interpretation of sensation in order to form a mental representation o =The process by which changes in the state of the brain give rise your objective experience of reality that follows your interpretation II. The World as a Construction Optic disk in the retina has NO rods or cones in it, creating little holes (blind spots) in our vision when you only use one of your eyes to view something o =Gap where no info is coming in your visual field o Perception fills in this gap by guessing as to what is there (like by filling in the black dot w color of the background) Perception= brain’s best guess Occluded= what you can’t see; we are able to see a complete image even when we’re missing info Perception= “top down” process, while sensation= “bottom up” III. Visual Perception: What? Requirements for object recognition: 1. Perceptual organization: trying to organize the world its separate components a. Gestalt principles of perceptual grouping: proximity, continuity (continuous lines), similarity (same color/shape) b. Help tell us what part of the scene goes together 2. Separating figure from ground a. What’s part of the scene and what’s part of the background? 3. Recognition of composite shapes (geons) 4. Matching to template Failures of object recognition: Visual object agnosia: can’t attach visual scene to what it actually is IV. Visual Perception: Who? Face recognition depends on particular region in visual cortex Fusiform “face area” (FFA)= active in certain scenarios (dog shows to pick 1 dog out of seemingly identical ones) Face recognition relies on organization features o So= perspective dependent We are worse at recognizing faces upside down than anything else upside down Thatcher effect: inverting a face disrupts our ability to pick up important detail (like whether someone’s eyes and mouth are upside down) Prosopagnosia: the inability to recognize human faces; “face- blindness” o Hairlines are processed more like an object Visual object agnosia: can recognize faces, but not objects (such as strawberry in Angelina Jolie’s mouth) o =Called double dissociation V. Visual Perception: Where? Failures of object localization= optic ataxia: difficulty tracking and grasping Where info= processed up the stream that moves dorsally What and where pathways do interact (feature integration theory) o Ex: direction object similar to a hawk is flying above a chick o Nativism: chicks are born w certain theories that tell them how to react depending on the direction an object moves Brain can determine where something is in space just by seeing where it is in visual field Retinotopic map= the 1 way our vision is kind of like a camera o =A little map in back of one’s brain depicting what you’re currently looking at o However, you can NOT tell how far away an object is by looking at this map 2 ways to tell how far away something is: binocular cues & monocular cues o Binocular: requires 2 eyes to detect; relies on fact that our 2 eyes are certain distance apart from each other Compare where 2 objects are on your 2 retinas o Binocular disparity: require comparison of 2 retinal images of an object o Monocular cues: atmospheric gradient, linear convergence (lines coming together in 2D pictures), texture gradient, occlusion, relative size, interposition, light/shadow Don’t need binoculars to pick up on these Muller-Lyer illusion: makes certain lines seem shorts due to oblique & acute depth cues o People who live in developing cultures that aren’t used to square rooms don’t fall for this illusion Idea of effects of both nature and nurture Key Ideas Our brains use theories and sensations together to generate our perceptual reality These theories can be either hardwired or acquired These theories can be used to trick our perceptual systems into seeing something that is not there Lecture #6 on 2/4: Memory I. Sensory Memory Memory: the encoding of information about the past so that is can be retrieved at some point in the future 3 phases: sensory, short-term, & long-term memory Sensory memory: we mainly focus on iconic (visual) & echoic (sound) o Neurons continue firing briefly 1-2 seconds after receiving sensory event (buffer for iconic memory= 1-2 secs) Sperling’s partial memory procedure: iconic memory is able to store most of the scene accurately o Sustained firing II. Short-term Memory Information that is ATTENDED TO your short-term memory; otherwise you will just forget it Short-term= called “working memory;” need some sort of active maintenance to retain information o =Information you’re consciously maintain in your mind o Conscious operations= flexible, but also limited in the amount of info that we can hold o Process working memory undergoes= “rehearsal” Limit: 7 plus or minus 2 pieces of information at one time Rehearsal memory relies primarily on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex III. Long-term Memory What your brain can retain for an hour, day, or lifetime o Capacity essentially= unlimited 2 kinds of long-term memory: explicit & implicit Explicit: what you know you know/can describe (declarative) o Knowing order of bottom row keyboard keys o Semantic (piece of info/fact) & episodic (remembering details of an event; what allows us to engage in mental time travel to visit past memories) The hippocampus (located in temporal lobe) links pieces of info like feeling, sound, location, facts, and sight to create episodic memory More times you retrieve a memory (retrieval) the stronger the link among items in explicit memory gets (consolidation) o Over time episodic memories get transformed semantic ones Implicit: what you know, but don’t know how to describe (procedural memories) o Ex: emotional experience, behavior, riding a bike o Knowing how to type sentence w/o actually using or looking at a keyboard To maximize your memory for material: o Quiz yourself (consolidation) o Read the textbook (reconsolidation) o ***Ideal to read the textbook 2 days after learning material in lecture IV. Memory Failures 1. Semantic memory stores gist, not details 2. Memories are actively constructed, not faithfully recorded 3. NO amount of passive looking will help you retain details (like the apple logo) a. Passive ex: highlighting, skimming, & reading= waste of time b. Have to actively engage w info to learn it Amnesia: when hippocampus is damaged Anterograde amnesia: inability to encode new information in long-term declarative memory o =Inability to transfer info from short long term store o Usually caused by a stroke or trauma o Affects explicit but NOT implicit memory Retrograde amnesia: inability to retrieve previously encoded information from long-term declarative memory o =Inability to retrieve info that was acquired before particular date (typically of the injury/surgery) o Older memories (distant) can be retained even when hippocampus is damaged V. Enhancing Memory 1. Encoding strategies a. Elaborative encoding: actively relating new info to knowledge that’s already in memory (linking) i. Baker-baker paradox: easier to remember that he IS a baker, rather than his name is Baker; doesn’t have same rich semantic info b. Visual imagery encoding c. Organization encoding
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