Chicano History Week 2 - Lectures and Film
Chicano History Week 2 - Lectures and Film ETST 004
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anastassia Erudaitius on Saturday April 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ETST 004 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Lopez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Chicano History in Culture at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 04/09/16
4/4/2016 ETST 4 – Chicano History Monday Lecture – Week 2 [Lecture] Assimilationist model o We associate with the American Dream o Focuses on the individual, it doesn’t matter who it is, your color, etc. but you will be successful if you try o No one is preferred and no one is singled out o In this society we forget in Asian culture, Chicano structure, the family is very important but in our society the focus is on the individuals o If you want to get ahead “sometimes your family is holding you back, and you need to think of yourself” blowing your future because you’re focusing on the family o Situations where if a name was difficult to say it would most likely get changed o Assimilate – to conform, to blend in, to become part of o Cultures and people from Latin America, Africa, Asia, contribute more to the world culture than people give them credit for o There were no cowboys until the Mexicans showed the American settlers how to be cowboys o Sometimes there is conflict between the parents and the children the children want to assimilate (change their name, embarrassed by the food they cook) 1 o *Groups who do not attain parity are those who for one reason or another have failed or refused to assimilate and to take advantage of the many opportunities* our society blames the individual if they are not successful, not the society There is this notion that everyone has the same opportunities is our society Classic Colonialism o How racial groups were treated by colonizers Internal colonialism o How racial groups are treated by members of their society that compares to classic colonialism o Some groups and individuals were forced to enter America Acculturation – not totally assimilated Assimilation – total immersion o Sometimes they feel more comfortable around Anglos than they do their own culture Parity – equality Secondary laborer, or secondary businesses – dependent on other businesses o Often when people of color own businesses they are secondary businesses Marginalized people o In between cultures , not belonging fully to any one group Marxist model – We have racism because we have classism 2 4/6/2016 ETST 4 – Chicano History Lecture – Film: Day of the Dead [Lecture] Aztec goddesses –– La Virgin of Guadalupe appeared to peasant Juan Diego Indigenous religion is most commonly the belief in many gods Catholic religion – often pray to the saints o There is a strong sense of regionalism involved in Catholicism, because certain regions have certain saints that are favored over others [Day of the Dead Video] Mexico’s heritage influenced by both: o Ancient pre-Hispanic heritage and the Spanish who conquered them and brought their Spanish culture along with them Land flanked by two mountain regions o There is very little suitable agricultural land in these regions The holiday is one week long during which they clean and decorate the graves of their relatives in preparation for the Dayof the Dead Children rehearse the dance of Santiago o Red masks represent the demons and the evil dead o The story is Christian but the interpretation is native Mexican Cinnamon brought by Spaniards from India Chiles, potatoes, and spices are at the center of Mexican cuisine o Potatoes originally came from Mexico 1 Mexican turkey is the ancestor to the American turkey eaten during Thanksgiving In some cities there are informal schools where ancient dance and culture is taught Produce comes from the rich highland jungles Geese and chickens and donkeys and horses (there was an ancestor in Mexico but it died out and the Spaniards reintroduced it) came from Europe Zacapoaxtla o Maria Mora Sosa – everyday she sits in her house with her friends talking about what goes on in town with her many customers She has been making and selling liquors for 60 years Liqueur made from wild mountain oregano – seeped in 60-80 proof alcohol “Sholispta”? Farmers plant fields on the steep sides of the sierras their ancestors were pushed into the unfertile sides of the mountains it doesn’t yield much produce The ways the people live haven’t changed much over the past 5 centuries San Miguel o Language is the language of the ancient Aztecs with many Spanish words mixed in o Rebozos – shawls worn by women Some have specific meanings Mexican indigenous culture o Pottery is made exactly the same a prehistoric pots They are shaped with corn cobs o The town welcomes visitors with dance and food – this tradition goes back to ancient times during Days of the Dead 2 o Dishes haven’t changed much o Maguey Plant The heart of the plant is scraped out and the sap collects in the hollow Pulque from the maguey plant sap sap ferments into alcohol Outer layer of plant used to ripen food, for paper, or for cooking Needles of the plant are used Aztec elites frowned on public drunkenness Two days out of the week are set aside to mourn children specifically Cholula o Has always been a religious center When the Spanish arrived in Mexico theyknew the best way to conquer them was to control how they think and feel about the world they did that through religion Marx called religion the opium of the masses because it was a way to control people Religion pretty much dominated how they looked at the world, their thoughts, etc. Cholula was more than just a temple it was a city o In “old religion” (indigenous religion) yellow was the color of the dead It was believed that the dead could see the color yellow So marigold flowers/petals are used to direct the dead souls to homes, altars, etc. o Tangible remains of the past found pottery found in marigold fields o Teotihuacan is a cultural center o 500 years ago Cholula’s market was outdoors now it is indoors , it is also a destination dining place 3 o Stomach of lamb cooked with chile o Stuffed sheep intestines were brought by Europeans but they never heard of chiles before they came to Mexico o The most intense flavors come from chiles that have been dried o Corn rust – rot (black fungus) found on corn during the wet season Made into tortillas, and other foods The capital – Puebla is one of the best reserved colonial cities o The images portrayed during the Day of the Dead are often satirical, humorous, and as a reminder of one’s own inevitable death o Art is important for Day of the Dead The children learn art from their parents o The Castillos’ art – vivid colors – all used from natural materials – just like pre- hispanic cultures Cochineal insects crushed to make red dye o Figurines often poke fun at all the things people think are serious – as if to say in the end we are all equal – “equally serious, equally foolish, and equally dead” o When humans were sacrificed to the gods the skeletons were real now the skeletons are made of candy the skulls are made of sugar and are dried o Names of the customers are on the skulls to remind them of their own mortality o The dead cry because the dead mourn for the food they cannot enjoy, and because they are missing life o All the ancestors would “die for” for Mole Poblano dish Mixture of Mexican and European ingredients ( 25 plus) Chocolate originated in Mexico and was reserved for gods and kings Nuns make the best mole Mole is labor intensive – spicy, rich, and sweet 4 Mole can be made from any number of ingredients (one is made from round pumpkin seeds) good restaurants will have 3 different types of mole The historic way to make mole at home is in clay pots called cazuelas o Day of the Dead is breeding season for grasshoppers – are eaten and are cleaner than pigs or chickens because they eat nothing but grass seeds o Mosquito eggs and mosquitos are mixed into batter and made into croquettes o Almost every family sets up an alter for a family member or friend who has died o Pathways made of marigold petals – meant to lead the dead home because the dead are drawn in by the marigold petals The hotlands – the land is dry for much of the year -- Actopan o Families spend the night in the graveyard o People gather at night to wait for the return of the spirits in graveyard people here still practice the old customs of the Day of the Dead o Pre-Hispanic art makes the shape of the breads – but the yeast-raised bread is a European addition o Candies made at home – marzipan Mexican version made with ground pumpkin seeds o A respective history teacher died the family sets out the professors’ favorite foods nd o All the preparations for the entire week lead to after midnight on Nov 2 The dead reunite with the living In other cities the tradition is distorted, here it is the original There are food vendors outside the graveyard to feed families throughout the night if they didn’t bring their own food Pre-Hispanic religions said death was not the end of life believed the spirits of the dead really did return 5 The incense is a pine resin used by all the pre-Hispanic peoples – in some traditions the smoke signals the departure of the dead, on others it signals their return/guiding back Just before dawn the communion service is held – communion for the living and in memory of the departed Memorials for the dead will continue through the next day In the old days when beliefs in Day of the Dead are more powerful – the elders of every family would end with a prayer 6
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