PSY 101, Week 2 Notes
PSY 101, Week 2 Notes PSY 101
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Claudia Irizarry on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at University at Buffalo taught by Larry Hawk in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Claudia A Irizarry 2616 Professor Hawk PSY 101 Lectures 3 amp 4 Pearson Psychology 3rd Edition Textbook Chapter 2 Part 1 Scientific Methods Intro who needs science The Scientific Method Overview Hypotheses specific predictions Specify the Problem if weightlessness affects sleep how does it affect astronaut performance Observe events observing that astronauts sleep less than normal Form Hypothesis disrupted sleep impairs learning Test Hypothesis Comparing learning in people who sleep normally versus disrupted Formulate Theory Test Theory theories must be falsifiable precise testable predictions if X then y if 2X then 3y VsVague astrology or untestable dream interpretation all else equal B Speci es Theories must be falsifiable Results should be replicable Repeatable by others using same procedures ex a genetics of mental illness meta analysis also note size of relationship b occasionally because people lie autism and vaccine example 1 Scienti c Method Overview a overview b specifies c goals d basic principles 11 Research Strategies III Measuring amp Analyzing Results Specific Methods What are we talking about 0 definition of a variable that specifies how it is measured or manipulated Reliability amp Validity repeatability consistency of measurement accuracy test measures what it says it does consider selfreport ratings biases ex ask a guy and if they force their answer might or might not get a reliable answer might underreport or lie You can collect data but not measure what you re interested in bullseye example Sometimes it s hard to recall issues of different types of measures Sampling a convenience b representative it s hard to get different diverse access in different communities limits see if findings are wrong c random random digit dialing sampling is critical because it tells us the population we can talk about Ex Like seeing about video game leading to aggression see about children ages 512 then asking college students it s not representing the entire population 11 Research Strategies Naturalistic object Case studies Correlational Designs Experimental Designs QuasiExperimental Designs External Validity don t think about other in uences Note how framing questions alters results Research Strategies correlations correlation measure of the relationship bw 2 variables neither of which controlled by the investigator correlation coefficient of r when r is negative when one thing goes up the other goes down when r is positive when one thing goes up the other goes up ex height weight ex 1 positive correlation longer couples together the more similar social and political opinions ex 2 XY correlation between x and y is 45 the correlation between y and z is 30 Which is stronger exceptions and illusory correlations correlations help us to predict but there are potential problems correlation does not imply causation ex correlation between children watching violent television programs vs having childhood violence vs violent parents all connect to each other bigger samples should be found just because someone does something and a result happens doesn t mean its a correlation Figure 22 Strength of Correlation ex TopHat choices of your opinion of PSY 101 class Choice A Moderately enjoy the class Choice B Very Much Choice C I Love It Standard Deviation measures the average variability among scores in a distribution gt Research Strategy Experiments Fig 212 Random assignment is critical there is still variability III Measuring amp Analyzing Results 0 central tendency 0 mode most frequent 0 median middle score 0 mean arithmetic average ex income mean 108000 but most people make le than 100000 and very few that make a billion dollars Facilitated Communication a technique developed in Australia used for the treatment of infantile autism charming simplicity 0 Facilitator sits next to autistic child who sits in front of a computer keyboard or letter pad 0 Douglas Bilken a professor of education at Syracuse University published an article announcing the development of facilitated communication 0 Jenny Storch 14 year old infantile autistic child enrolled in the Devereux School in Red Hook New York who used facilitated communication Allegations of abuse were made by her of her father through this communication 0 facilitated communication keyboard like a modern version of Ouija board writing one sentence with the intention of writing a different sentence 0 Research Design Matters Science has helped practitioners who worked with individuals with autism to avoid wasting valuable time on facilitated communication and other ineffective or harmful interventions 2 Science has allowed practitioners to develop and test treatments for autism that work We need research design because there s cruel illusions like the naive realism in the children s abuse allegations that could ve been prevented another example where systematic research wasn t conducted Prefrontal Lobotomy an effective treatment for schizophrenia and other severe disorders Surgeons would severe the neural fibers that connect the brain s frontal lobes to the underlying thalamus Portuguese Neurosurgeon Egas Moniz the developer of Prefrontal Lobotomy was awarded Prize in 1949 The same psychological processes that serve us well in most situations also predispose us to errors in thinking Two Modes of Thinking 1 Quick and Re exive from Malcolm Gladwell s book Blink make snap decisions 2 Analytical Thinking Slow and Re ective Kahneman in 2011 judged a person by their face but talked to them and had a different impression of them heuristic a mental shortcut or rule of thumb intuitive thinking tends to rely on heuristics We can think of research designs as systematic techniques developed by scientists in psychology and other fields to harness the power of other type of thinking analytical
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