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Week 4

by: Laura Castro Lindarte
Laura Castro Lindarte

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About this Document

Professor changed the date of midterm again. Now it is on the 17th. This was based on the visual outline that he created to help with the information.
Intro to International Politics
Bill Mikhail
Class Notes
International politics
25 ?




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laura Castro Lindarte on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Bill Mikhail in Winter2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Politics in Public Relations at George Washington University.

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Date Created: 02/06/16
February 1, 2016  Security Politics   ● Security is very important for a nation  ○ States act to protect themselves and their borders   ○ EU focuses on fighting terrorism, Costa Rica has no army but still have to worry  about security  ● Technology is used to ensure security   ○ Example is flying drones   ○ Budget is important, in democracies debate will rise over security and budget  ○ Need to be rational when deciding what to do  ● There are lots of nations and each worry about security    ● Balance of Power: a system of security based on alliances and counter alliances   ○ Alliances and counter alliances are the pillars of balance of power  ■ There is a lotdiversity between nations in alliances   ○ Can be described withnumbers (quantitative) and descriptions (qualitatives)   ■ Descriptive=numbers; normative=judgements   ○ Sphere of influence: places where nations have influence even if not in alliance  with them  ■ Ex: Russia still having influence over parts of Asia  ○ Alliances can be don​hrough treaties, before/after war or before/after peace,  usually begins with one nation taking initiative   ○ Can be static or dynamic   ■ Ex: France withdrew from army side of NATO but still a member of NATO   ○ Practice of Self­restraint: countries are in different alliances but no one is fighting   ■ Only work if there is another competing power; problem with USA  because when USA was winning in Iraq they did self­restraint even  though they had won   ○ Many different types of balancnuclear, conventional, economic, among  companies, mutual interest, terror, balance of (different groups of nations  give needed resources to certain areas)   ○ Balance of power isubject to domestic conditionnner debate influences  alliances   ○ Balance of power iconservative in nature: provides stability and can prevent  war   ○ Sometimes alliances arenot centralized or done to go against another country   ■ “Coalition of the Willing”, “Alliance of English Language Speaking  Nations”: against same enemy but only those countries of english  heritage helped   ○ Tied to realism because ​as to do with power and military   ○ Related to constructivism becau​ome alliances to similar culture   ○ Liberalism becausemust meet international alliances’ conditions   ○ Not balance perfectly due to different history and other factors   ■ Symmetrical relatioEurozone is example with Britain being out and  Germany backing it up    ● Collective Security: ensuring security of nations by collective means   ○ Promoted by Woodrow Wilson   ○ Decisions made by group of nations put together   ○ Very old ideal   ○ Either to counterbalance or not; must question how involved each are and type of  nation (degree of conformity)   ○ Question what the alternative is if nothing is done through collective security   ○ Members are not always nations, can be non­state actors  ■ Ex: USA depending on Turks to fight ISIS even though it is not a state   ● How is it enforced?   ○ Case of Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Iran:   ■ Putting hope that one nation will take over and promote stability   ■ Can be frustrating and take long   ○ All having confrontational atagainst the “other”­binding power of collectivity   ■ Ex: Muhammad Ali being envoy of Ottoman Sultan that mediates conflict;  governor of Egypt; his son Ibrahim Pasha invaded nations and leading to  Constantinople​urope worries because destroying balance of power so  collective security made to stop his in​ritish Henry John Temple  said “keep Egypt in Africa not Europe”   ■ Shows that this existed before the League of Nations   ○ Cause of War or Cause of Peace:   ■ Iraq in 1991 for war and get rid of Hussein   ■ Iraq 2003 get rid of weapons of mass destruction to bring peace   ○ Can bedone through regional or international groups:   ■ Being part of this is voluntary with no punishment for not joining  ○ If structure is too rigid then nations will begin to stop caring and leave   ■ Has historical precedent   ■ Ex: Italy assaulted Abyssinia in 1938 without caring about collective  security in League of Nations   ○ Collective Security will not guarantee that problem is solved because countries  begin to leave   ■ Growing especially due to peacekeeping efforts   ○ Could bewritten to documents       February 3, 2016   ● First international treatTreaty of Kadesh between the Egyptians and the Hittite  Empire   ● Other important eventCongress of berlin and Congress of Vienna   ● Evidence for realism incl​dcramble for Africa   ● New book ​Ethical Realismfocusing on doinealism goals through moral ways  ○ Early philosopher of realism is George Kennan (“Mr. X)   ○ Hans Morgenthau taught realism in Chicago and wrote book “Politics Among  Nations”   ● Niebuhrwas a famous intellectuahat tried to do realism with connection to religion  (Christian Realism)   ○ Another was father Courtney Morrey   ● Nixon and his advisor used realism goals   ○ In Democratic sideBrzezinski with Carter   ○ President Wilson promoted liberalism through League of Nations   ● America is more schooled in liberalism   ○ Cyrus Vance, former SOS and lawyer, is influential too   ● Some didn’t like sharp division so mconstructivism: how several parts of society  (religion, culture, language) influence how you do foreign policy   ● Collective Security under United Nations manda​ontesting sovereignty)   ○ Contesting schools honor and acknowledge sovereignty   ● Falklands IslandGreat Britain and Argentina wi​reat Britain getting sovereignty  ○ You can claim ​00 miles as exclusive economic zonrom border zone but  territorial water is only 12 miles    ● Strait of TirIsrael and Egypt in 1967    ● Oder­Neisse Line:River became border oGermany and Poland   ● Now news of China building artificial island, USA send warship very close to it   ○ Japan vs. China(and other nations​ispute over islands in “South China Sea”   ● Abu Musa, Greater Tumb, Lesser Tumb controlled by United Arab Emirates but dispute  over them with Iran   ● 1981­ Gulf of SidrUSA and Libya with some instances of fighting   ● Kuwait almost gave Bubiyan Island to Iraq  ○ Oil rich area  ○ Iraq didn’t accept offer to get island   ● Paul Nitzfound SAIS at John Hopkins University   ○ John Whitehead founded last addition at Seton Hall University   ○ Oil rich area  ○ Iraq didn’t accept offer to get island                     


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