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Genetics (BIOL 3000) Lecture 1/2 notes

by: Kennedy Finister

Genetics (BIOL 3000) Lecture 1/2 notes BIOL3000

Marketplace > Auburn University > BIOL3000 > Genetics BIOL 3000 Lecture 1 2 notes
Kennedy Finister
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auburn university genetics professor: rita graze material covered: lecture 1 lecture 2
Rita Graze
Class Notes
Genetics, biol 3000, Auburn University, Science




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Finister on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL3000 at Auburn University taught by Rita Graze in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 187 views.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
Genetics  Lecture  1,  2   January  13th/  15th/  2016     What  is  Genetics?   • The  branch  of  biology  that  deals  with  heredity  &  the    expression  of  the   inherited  traits  in  individuals   o Includes  variation  in  inherited  traits  in  populations  &  genetic   differences  at  the  species  level   • How  traits  are  passed  down  &  expressed     o Example:  hair  color       Areas  Of  Genetics   • Transmission  genetics   o Mode  of  inheritance,  as  well  as  segregation,  assortment  &  mapping   o Mendel  era   v Where  are  genes  located?   v How  are  genes  physically  passed  down?   v How  do  genes  sort?   • Cytogenetics   o Chromosomal  biology,  including  structure,  function,  variability  &   disease     • Molecular  Genetics   o Gene  structure  &  function,  including  replication  &  regulation     v How  are  genes  expressed?     v How  is  DNA  replicated?   v How  are  proteins  made?   • Population  Genetics   o Genetic  makeup  &  dynamics  over  space  &  time  (ie  evolution)  of  entire   populations   v Human  genome   o How  is  it  structured/interpreted   o What's  in  it?   • Genomics   o Content  organization,  structure  &  function  of  entire  genomes       Why  Genetics?   • Know  more  about  your  family  &  ancestors   • Blame  your  Neanderthal  ancestors  for  stuff   • Personalization  of  health  &  medicine   • Understand  new  discoveries       Earliest  Theories  of  Heredity   • Spontaneous  generation     1   Genetics  Lecture  1,  2,  3   January  13,  2016     o The  idea  that  animals  are  spontaneously  generated  abiotically  from   certain  materials     § Examples:   • Insects  from  dirt   • Mice  are  around  wheat  in  your  barn,  they  must  generate   from  the  wheat   • Preformationism   o The  adult  form  exists  inside  the  egg  or  sperm  as  a  tiny  homunculus  (a   supposed  microscopic  but  fully  formed  human  being  in  form  which  a   fetus  was  formerly  believed  to  develop)  which  simply  grows  to  full   adult  size  during  development   • Pangenesis   o The  idea  (theory)  that  small,  exact  copies  of  body  parts  (pangenes)   are  transported  are  transported  by  the  bloodstream  to  the   reproductive  organs  &  are  assembled  into  the  gametes   • Epigenesis   o New  structures,  such  as  tissues  &  organs,  can  appear  during   developments  that  are  not  present  at  the  time  of  original  formation.   The  first  expression  of  the  idea  that  phenotypes  (observable   characteristics/traits)  themselves  are  not  only  the  potential  of   producing  them  is  inherited     • Biogenesis   o Living  things  come  from  other  living  things  via  reproduction     • Germ-­‐Plasm  Theory   o Cells  in  the  reproductive  organs  carry  a  complete  set  of  genetic   information  that  is  passed  to  the  egg/sperm.  That  is  there  are  germ   cell  (sperm  &  eggs)  &  somatic  (non  reproductive)  cells.  Information  is   inherited  in  the  sperm  in  the  germ  cells  &  not  from  somatic  cells                                       2   Genetics  Lecture  1,  2   January  13th/  15th/  2016     Mitosis   • Cell  division,  always  regulated     • All  cells  carry  same  DNA  (genetically  identical)   • Can  be  unregulated  (uncontrolled  growth)   o Divides  when  they  shouldn’t  &  fail  to  make  sure  daughter  cells  are   genetically  identical     o Cancer  or  birth  defect     DNA  all  located  in  nucleus  ß  most  important     Genetic  Information  is  housed  in  chromosomes   (DNA  on  a  protein  scaffold  =  chromosomes)   • Each  DNA  molecule  =  chromatid   • 2  sister  chromatids  attached  =  dyad   1  sister  chromatid  =  monad   • “X”  =  2  DNA  molecules  attached  at  centromere   • Monad  à  duplication  à  dyad  à  mitosis  à  daughter  chromosomes   • 23  pairs  of  chromosomes   • 46  total  chromosomes   o autosomes  &  sex  chromosomes   • n  =  #  of  chromosomes  in  a  single  set  [23  in  humans]   • 2n  =  #  of  chromosomes  considering  both  chromosome  sets  [46  for   humans]     Homologues   • have  the  same  length,  centromere  location  &  genes.  They’re  just  different   versions  (mom  &  dad)     Mitosis   • somatic  cell  division   • 2  cells  from  1  cell   • Zygote  (diploid  2n)  à  mitosis  à  adult  (diploid  2n)   • Morphology   o Results  from  when  they  (the  cells)  divide,  where  &  how  much  they   divide  mitotically  through  division   • Basis   o Genetic  information  has  to  be  copied   o Moved  to  daughter  cells  evenly   o Divide  into  two  cells   • Discovered  by  Walter  Flemming  by  looking  at  salamanders   • 5  stages   1. prophase   2. prometaphase   3. metaphase     3   Genetics  Lecture  1,  2,  3   January  13,  2016     4. anaphase   5. telophase/cytokinesis       Prophase   • form  organized  chromosomes/microtubules  to  move  microtubules   • chromosomes  condense  organize   • asters  appear   o looks  like  mickey  mouse       Prometaphase   • one  nucleus  to  two  by  breaking  down  nuclear  membrane   • asters  move  two  either  side  &  turn  into  spindles   o microtubules  extend  to  nuclear  region   • spindles  form  from  microtubules  organizing  centers  (MTOCs)  ß  “stars”   o microtubules  extend/shorten  from  here   • microtubules  connect  to  chromosomes  at  this  stage  at  the  kinetochore         • spindle  microtubes  come  from  both  sides  of  kinetochore   o attachment  allows  them  to  move       Metaphase   • Chromosomes  line  up  on  the  metaphase  plate   • Spindle  is  fully  formed   • Spindle  checkpoint   o Basics   § Detect    error  &  initiate  fix   o In  Depth   § Make  sure  everything  is  correct,  no  errors  in  chromosomes     4   Genetics  Lecture  1,  2   January  13th/  15th/  2016     o Done  through  tension.  Tugs  on  both  sides  to  see  if   they’re  connected  to  kinetochore  (think  of  it  as  a  chinese   finger  toy)   o If  there’s  no  connection  in  a  set  of  sister  chromatids   they’ll  look  to  fix  it   § Sister  chromatids  connected  by  cohesion         Anaphase     • Sister  chromatids  are  pulled  apart  to  opposite  poles   o Pulled  by  shortening  the  microtubules       Telophase/Cytokenesis   • Nuclear  membrane  reforms  (one  for  each  daughter  cells)  &  spindle  breaks   down     • Chromosomes  relax   • Cytokinesis  happens  after  telophase   o Where  the  cells  actually  divide     o (looks  like  pinching  play  dough)       Cell  Cycle   • mitosis  is  a  very  small  part   • most  cells  are  in  G0  &  the  rest  divide  in  interphase  (3  stages)   1. G1   2. s-­‐phase   3. G2   • When  are  sister  chromatids  formed?   o S-­‐phase,  when  DNA  is  replicated  or  Synthesized   • G1   o Before  replication   § 2  homologus  chromosomes   § genetically  distinct   • (same  type  of  information  but  not  identical)   • G2   o Post  replication     § Getting  ready  for  mitosis     § 2  chromosomes  are  identical  &  produced  by  DNA  replication       5   Genetics  Lecture  1,  2,  3   January  13,  2016           • G0   o Non  dividing  cells   • Checkpoints   o Spindle  assembly  checkpoint  in  mitosis   o G0  what  cells  are  dividing  Vs  Not   § Fake  checkpoint   o DNA  damage   § Between  G1  &  S-­‐phase   § Needed  because  they’re  about  to  duplicate  &  its  hard  to   duplicate  chromosomes  if  they’re  damaged   o DNA  damage  &  replication     § Making  sure  everything  has  been  replicated   oCheck  points  keep  cell  cycle  regulated     Cancer  happens  because  checkpoints  fail   • Get  out  of  G0  when  they’re  not  supposed  to,  leading  to  rapid  growth   • Checkpoints  breakdown  &  chromatids  aren’t  identical       6  


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