Social Psych Notes
Social Psych Notes PSYC 3430 - 03
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
Popular in Intro To Social Psych
Popular in Psychlogy
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 3430 - 03 at Tulane University taught by O'Brien, Laurie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro To Social Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Cognitive processing Controlled processing 0 Conscious intentional ovluntary effortful thinking Automatic processing 0 Nonconscious unintentional involuntary effortless thinking Cognitive misers o Miser person who is stingy with money 0 We39re stingy with our congnitions not enough time to thoroughly process all info we take in every day Automaticity Use of schemas 0 Organizational mental structures Function of schemas o Efficiency 0 Aid recall 0 Resolve ambiguity Which schema when Depends on accessibility O Forefront of the mind 0 More likely to be use Actiivating particular associations in memory is called priming o Temportay accessibility 0 Recent experience 0 Last night our roomate came home drunk and you see someone acting weird so you think they39re drunk Chronic access 0 Past experience Donald Method participants 0 Even though list of words were supposed to be unrealated you39d interpret same behavior differently Schematic errors 0 If not consistent with schema we39re likely to forget Memory erros Use schemas to fill in the blanks o Researchers were interested in types of mistakes 0 Chategorized the mistakes Attention errors Biased perceptions 0 Confirmation bias seek out info to Regardless of how you ask the question ppl were more likely to choose person b Judgment errors Seeing relationsihps where none exist 0 lllusory correlation Autism and vaccines Confirmation bias can support Lo 0 Finding order in random events Gamblig I If ppl were gambling and they got to role the dice vs someone else did they thought they had more chance of winning Using heuristics rules of thumb that help us make judgments or decisions Mental shortcuts o Represeentativeness Similar to typical case A student is blonde surfs laid back Where is he from Statistically you39re more likely to be killed by a deer car accidnets 0 Availability What comes to mind Causing confirmation Self fulfilling prophecies 0 Making our schemas come true 0 Expectation perceiver behavior target behavior expectation confirmed 0 Pp pic 0 Pymalion effect Randomly chose some studnets in class and told them they were intellectual bloomers at the end of the year those kids had better grades and were doing better Attractive students are getting better grades Takign contorl Controlled processing 0 Requires mental capacity 0 Requires motivation Attribution We try to extract more info than what39s given Understanding cause of behavior or events Process of making inferences When ask quotwhyquot 0 Unexpected or unusal events 0 Bad painful or unpleasant events Most common attribution 0 Internal dispositional vs External situational 0 Someone being late to class is lazy dispositional Situational would be if it was raininig outside Kelly39s covariation model Consistency does person usually behave this way in this situation Ye s high consisteny No low consistency Ex in computer lab on campus and someone is having problem this persona is always having problems it is high c Distinctiveness does person behave differently in diff situations 0 Ex friend always has trouble with computer and also all other elctronics you39d say his behavior in computer isn39t distinct bc he does it all the time 0 High distinctiveness Consensus do others behave similarly in this situation 0 Does everyone have problems int eh computer lab Kelly says we try to seek out info we may make an internal or external attributioln High consistency low distinctiveness low consensus internal attribution High consistency high d high consensus external attribution Low consistency external attribution Fundamental attribution error Bias in attributional tendency Overestimate the role of personal factors Underestimate the role of situational factors Two step model 0 We tend to underestimate the situational determinants of others behavior but not our own bc we observe other from a dif perspec than we observe ourselves This is known as the actorobserver Actor observer effect The who Observer blamed rock Actor blamed seating Fundamental attribution error applies less to self than to others 0 Self situational attributions o Other dispositional attributions Perspective matters 0 Actors perceive events differently than observers Why are we sometimes wrong Using mental shortcuts o Rely on automatic processing Using schemas 0 Confirmation bias FAE o Fail to correct for situational pressures Why do we seem right Limited opportunity to be proven wrong We make our beliefs come true Everyone else is wrong Attitudes Positive or negative evaluation 0 Perosn 0 Object o ldea Cognitive affective and behavioral components 0 Ex miley cyrus you have thoughts feelings and find yourself listening to her music consequently Measuring attitudes Selfreport measures 0 Attitude scales 0 Bogus pipeline political beliefs we may not always be honest about attitudes toward racial prejudice Physiological machine they hook them up to and tells them it39s a lie detector I Makes people more honest Covert measures 0 Facial electromyograph EMG Electrical activity in the face faint electrical impulses that you can39t see outwardly The IAT o lmplicit association test Source of attitude Conditioning 0 Classical conditioning Repeated pairing with N8 and a pos or neg stimulus O Operant conditioning Punishment and reward Balance theory 0 Cognitive consistency theory argue we have pressures towards consistencies in our attitudes Genetic Social roles o Acquire the attitudes of other people in that role you take up Classical conditioning Before conditioning 0 NS mothballs no response 0 US grandma visis UR happiness During conditioning 0 CS mothballs 0 US grandma visits 0 Both UR happiness After conditioning o Operant conditioning Behavior influenced by reinforcement or punishment 0 Associate behavior with outcome Balance theory Cognitive consistency between people Ex attitude toward a person and the person has an attitude toward something else Eaerliest consistency theory Heider 0 Consistency within the person 0 Involves the perceiver another person and an attitude object Ex jill and dan are friends jill like saints so he might like them too multiply the positives or negatives between each to see if it39s balanced Ex dan and jill are friends dan hates vikings so jill has to hate to balance Ex jill and anna are friends anna likes falcons and jill doesn t unbalanced Genetic influences on attitudes Pp chart Identical twin correlation is stronger than fraternal suggests there39s a genetic component Social roles Stanford prison study Zimbardo had to halt experiment because everyone39s behavior was getting out of line What functions do attitudes fill Object appraisal o Attitudes categorize stimuli 0 Approach vs avoidance Value expression 0 Represent our identity What functions do attitudes fill Social adjustment 0 Facilitates relationships Ego defensive o Attitudes can defend the self from potentially threatening events Homophobia as egodefense Adams wright and lohr Homophobia protects their ego by convincing them that their straight Brought straight men into lab measured homophobic attitudes into two groups high or low had them watch porn heteroxesual lesbian gay measure their sexual arousal by report used a penal paciprograph measure circumfrence of penis o Nonhomophobic increase for het and les but not to gay men 0 Homophobic increase to all porn Do attitudes behavior We usually believe they should 0 Fundamental attribution error judge ppl39s internal states based on their behaviors and don t take into situational accounts Cognitive consistency O Strive for coherence meaning we want the two to align bc it39s consistence Ex if we think smoking is harmful and we smoke it may cause anxiety Strom thurmond 0 South carolina senator 0 Against race mixing 0 His daugther was black When attitudes predict behavior Self awareness Strong attitudes 0 Direct experience o Rehearsed Stable attitudes 0 Measured at same time When attitudes predict behavior Relevant to behavior 0 Specific vs general attitude 0 Birth ocntrol study davidson and jaccard Attitude measure I Atttiude toward birth control diff forms I Att Towrd birth control pills I Att Toward using birth control pills I Att Toward using birth control pills over next two years Attitudebehavior I 08 I 32 I 53 I 57 Why behavior affects attitudes Cogntivie dissonance theoy festinger o Behaviorattitude mismatch is uncomf 0 Need to reduce dissonance o Magnitude of dissonance is key 0 Results in changed attitude Fes nger o Brought participants to lab and had them do a boring task for an hour where they sat at a peg board and turned them when it was over them told some of the people how expectation influences task and asked if they would lie and tell them it was interesting some offered 20 to tell them others offered 1 and third group didn39t lie at all how much did you enjoy the study No lie low 20 lie slightly higher 1 lie really high Argument is that they only got a dollar and were like why did I lie cognitive dissonance made them convince themselves that it was fun Insufficientjustification Festinger and carlsmith Initiation study aronson and mills I Boring conversation about animal sex and then If you can read through a list of vulgar words or super vulgar words to an older man I Sever initiation liked most I Mild initiation liked medium I No initiation liked least We need to justify why we went through what we did that39s why they liked it more The tension that arises when on is simultaneously aware of two inconsistent cognitions is called cognitive dissonance argue that when our attitudes are weak or ambiguous we infer them by looking at our behaviors and the circumstances under which they occur Other word we deduce our attitudes in the same manner as would an outside observer 0 Selfperception theory Bem I Reran original festinger and Carlsmith study I You just learned about someone else that participated in the study The ppl who guessed the participants liked the study the most was when they were paid 1 Both theories now offered an explanation We use behavior as a que look to our behavior and infer our attitudes Observe own behavior lnfer attitude Offers alternative explanation why you might go through cognitive dissonance Comparing theories In most circumstances cog diss and self perc theory make same predictions Critical diff o Cog diss arousal causes attitude change PP SLIDE Are people the same everywhere Sleep 0 Biological phenomenon 0 Cultural phenomenon Does everyone need self esteem 0 Americans vs asians Stronger in america and manifests differently 0 Better than avg effect Natural selection 0 Process whereby those members of a species that survive and reproduce most effectively are the ones that pass along their genes to future generations Evolutionary psych o The study of the evolution of cognition and behavior using principles of natural selection Cultural perspectives 0 Culture the enduring behaviors ideas attitudes and traditions shared by a large group of ppl and transmitted from one generation to the next 0 How are people different and how cultures create differences 0 Ppl are integrated cultural perspectives with evolutionary perspectives 0 Infectious disease study rules on protection Evolved for culture Baimeister Language Progress Division of labor Network of trade and exchange Social norms standards for accepted and expected behavior All cultures have norms 0 Cultural similarities lncest it39s taboo 0 Cultural differences Personal space those closer to the equator can tolerate less personal space than those away from it Punctuality I What is considered late Brazil 335 min CA 19 min I What is considered early Brazil 54 minutes CA 24 min Pace of life I Accuracy of bank clocks I Speed at which pedestrians walk I Time to sell a stamp Social roles All cultures have social roles Social roles are a set of norms defining how ppl in a given social position ought to behave 0 High status Exateacher This person will usually be the one to suggest for a relationship to become more informal 0 Low status Ex a student 0 Across all cultures gender is an important social role Gender vs Sex One outdated view 0 Sex biologial category 0 Gender a social constructed notion of what is feminine and masculine Not perfect agreement sex vs gender distinction and definitoins among scholars For this class 0 Gender is the characteristics whether bioligcal or socially influenced by which ppl define male and female Myers Gender and the Self Children know own gender at 23 years can label others39 gender by 45 Transgender o Ppl whose gender identity does not match the gender that they were assigned at birth Gender typing process of categorizing ppl and things as masculine or feminine Automatic process Gender typing begins before birth names 0 90 of infants dressed in gender typed clothes 0 Continues through childhood and adulthood Gender stereotypes beliefs about the personal attributes of females and males Women 0 Men 0 Activating gender stereotypes Amount of info 0 The less we know the more likely we use stereotypes 0 Experiment on a baby in a diaper with a jack in the box startle response if they think it39s a girl scared if boy angry Salience of group membership 0 Ex solo status if you39re a man quotwhat do you think about menquot vice versa Power and stereotypes 0 Powerful more likely to stereotype Dangers of gender stereotypes Some are wrong Stereotypes exaggerate differences bt groups minimize differences within groups They can become self fulfilling prophecies Study male and female psychologists into a lab and did emotion recognition on pictures of faces when men were reminded about stereotypes they did worse Gender stereotypes and performance evaluations Early research showed men evaluated more positively than women Gender typing of the task Depends on information available about the person Gender similarity Despite stereotypes men and women more similar than different Gender differences more than similarity focus of research 0 18000 studies Gender differences theoreticla perspective Biology Socializationi Soial roles proposed by alice egly to take account that previous two could both be responsible Social situations