Week 2 book notes
Week 2 book notes ANTY 220S
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Zirko on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTY 220S at University of Montana taught by Cheyenne Laue in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Culture & Society in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Chapter 2: Past and Present Coffee and the Rise of the World System o Todays coffee has genetic traces from the first beans every harvested o Patterns of trade, interchange of ideas and human migrations laid foundation for evolving interconnections, tensions and contradictions of today o Coffee part of this process works to expand and control coffee production was a primary goal 500 years ago Early Uses and Records of Coffee o Probably originated somewhere in Ethiopia, spread to Red Sean and Yemen o Ormo (first to probably use coffee) ground coffee cherry and bean together and animal fat to create food balls o Drinking in the Islamic world by sufi order o Sufis adopted coffee because kept them away th o Yemen to Arab world in 16 century, then to Europeans o Early Struggles to Monopolize Production and Trade Upper classes of Europeans wanted shorter and cheaper trade routes Columbus 1492 mean to find a shorter way to india Vasco Da Gama found sea route to India around Cape Horne 1498 th th Turks expanded empire from 15 to 17 centuries, conquering Yemen (1536) control of coffee grown in mountain villages, dominated in coffee supply 1537 ormo expansion (invasion Ethiopia) wanted to increase land and influence Mocha became port of middle east because of coffee sales to Christians and Muslim Turks didn’t want to export living plants or fertile seeds, maintain their empire o Pilgrims and Colonial Powers Spread Coffee in Asia and Africa Tradition Baba Budan smuggled seeds out Dutch first transplanted seedlings grown in Amsterdam to sri lanka in 1688 Java transported and sold coffee as its main export plant Dutch were early leaders in coffee established colonial plantations in Asian Colonies French planted coffee on ivory coast dependant on slave labor Germans broth coffee to Cameroon Begins had coffee in Congo Portuguese in Angola Italian had coffee plantation sin Eritrea British was largest Uganda, Kenya, Zimbabwe Madagascar had wild coffee cultivated by French east india company Colonial government allowed Africans to produce coffee independently because of its advantages Diversified crop systems allowed to greater resilience to survive market fluctuations Coerce labor for coffee created patterns of labor relations and land tenure that underlined social tensions and experiences of inequality o Coffee Comes to the Americas Louis XIV of France wasn’t thrilled with coffee Brought to America by Captain Gaberil de Clieu smuggled plant to west indies from Paris in 1720, left letters documenting efforts Despite this smuggling effort, coffee already planted in Hispaniola in 1715 Dutch brought coffee to Surinam in 1718, Portuguese smuggled it in to Brazil in 1727, British planted coffee in Jamaica in 1730 Colonialism, Slavery, and Forced Labor o Expansion of Britain, France and Holland major player in growth of coffee production o Coffee=colonialism o Force slave labor extremely common in coffee plantations o Class of elite coffee growers emerged with large plantations and colonial administration shaped regional policies and social relationships among economic classes and ethnic group s o Small producers had independence o Expansion of coffee competed to dominate coffee and tea trade o British east India company became worlds foremost trading power o The Modern World System Emerges Development of global economic system steamed from political intrigues and conflicts over coffee production control and trade Andre Gunder Frank and Celso Furtado Latin Americas struggles economically, saw underdevelopment delayed transformation Ideas were foundation for dependency theory Britain, France and Holland, Strong central governments, dominate global economy managed acquisition and transportation of valuable raw goods Regions without strong governments weren’t strong economically Semi periphery areas worked to increase trade presence but weren’t very strong economically Some external areas maintained isolation form emerging economic power Global economic system created idea of first, second and third world countries which were shaped by external linkages, internal conditions and cultures Other theory created dependent less fortunate countries on larger economy and thus strengthened the larger countries economic system Global economy supported by trade, colonization and economic processes Still many countries are dependent Forced labors would resist and work at a minimum inefficiency and low productivity of early coffee production o Early Connections in an Emerging Global System Coffee extremely important to early trade relations and colonial expansion Demand for coffee disrupted culture and ways of life in countries Power shifts happen institution’s and traditions will undermine social justice, human rights, and resource access Growth of dependency multifaceted Europe and north America didn’t become economically dependent but dependent on coffee its self Lecture: Colonialism Overview All cultures change naturally can be very shocking ad intrusive Colonialism motivator of culture change, extremely important, ancient European colonialism allowed for domination of many indigenous cultures Naturalizing conquest was a justification of brutal practices of colonizers White mans burden European colonizers were rightful protectors and educators of indigenous populations who were inferior peoples incapable of accomplishing cultural progress Without Europeans, indigenous people were uncivilized Reaction by colonizers on indigenous people were awe and had disbelief Indigenous tried inclusion, all happy parties, Europeans resisted Indigenous technologies lost to European weapons Major types of Colonies o Settlement colonies mass immigration of colonials, fueled by obtaining large parcles of land o Maritime enclaves establishments in control of trade and natural resources within colony o Exploitation colonies enabled by large military presence creating forced labor of indigenous people, facilitated by political and economic control by colonized country Practices of Colonialism o Resettlement removal of indigenous group from traditional/ancestral lands taking them to new place, not fit for indigenous people, ie. Native americans o Reservations indigenous peoples palces after traditional lands taken by Europeans, caused difficulty in adapting causing poverty, hunger and disruption of cultural practices, o Missionism religious outposts of European colonizers working for eradication of indigenous religion and cultures lead to assimilation of natives o Forced Removal and Education of Children removal of native children and put in governmental schools forcing cultural assimilation, also arranged marriages hoping to breed out native linages o Slavery forced labor of natives, effects political, socioeconomic and kidnship structures o Eradication of languages and cultural practices many ways to achieve this forcing abandonment of native languages, European dress, religious customs, marriage etc o Alteration of Indigenous Economies blocked or eliminated native trade operations, replaced with European practices Ex. Fur trade pulled native americans into European economic system o Spread of Disease bringing of disease to native populations from European countries, smallpox and influenza unknown to native groups so they had no immune resistance demographic declines Colonialism and Anthropology o Anthropology burits in colonial period conducted work in shadow of colonial outposts o Salvage anthropology documentation and description of disappearing indigenous cultures o Seen as intrusive and unwelcome by natives o Anthropologist as expert natives didn’t like idea of being and expert on foreign culture, (ie representing cultural practices), also could imply asymmetrical power relationships during colonialism o Frozen in time resulting ethnographies only looked at a culture in that moment in time, not history or future, romanticized natives, problems when defining what was authentic problem for groups wanting to challgen cultural appropriation Anthropology is reflexive invested in responding to problems brought up by people Usually studying US culture, not foreign Problem oriented seeks to identify contemporary issues and questions and to investigate them through research Understanding of updating ethnographic work over the years Post colonialism o Academic, political and economic of analyzation and understanding the impacts of colonialism o Post colonial era time since last European colonies gained independence and are now in native hands o Decolonization undoing remnants of colonialism rearranging social structures, economic policies, land rights
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