Week 2 Lecture Notes
Week 2 Lecture Notes BCH 110
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Zirko on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BCH 110 at University of Montana taught by Scott Samuels in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Intro Biology for Biochemist in Biology at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Biochemistry 110, Week 2 2/1/16 Origin of Life Genetic information passed through a parent cell to a daughter cell Big Bang: Theory for origin of Universe o All matter restricted to small amount of space before big bang o Matter began to expand as result of big bang o Temperature began to increase o Only hydrogen and carbon were present Earth o Early atmosphere was different o No free oxygen o No ozone so earth was bombarded with UV rays from sun MillerUrey Experiment o Biomolecules proteins and nucleic acids o Arise under abiotic conditions from reactions of simple compounds Macromolecules o Large organized molecules form structure and carry out activities of cell o Polysaccharides (Sugar polymers) extremely important o Lipids( fats) o Proteins (amino acids) o Nucleic Acids (nucleotide polymer) Polymers o Derive from monomers o Encode information sequence of monomers o Example: strand of DNA, polypeptide sequence and polysaccharide chain 5’ vs 3’ end – allow for directionality in sequence Biomolecules and information o Enzymes biocatalysts most are proteins o All reactions catalyzed by enzymes o Catalytic activity depends on amino acid sequence o Genetic code relationship between nucleotide sequence in nucleic acids, encodes genetic information and amino acid sequence in proteins Origin of Cells o RNA World hypothesis Ribozymes RNA with catalytic activity Key event in life probably evolution of self replicating RNA RNA both encoded with catalyzed its own replication originally System evolved to encode for synthesis RNA primarily genetic material If RNA wasn’t first like DNA was 20 different amino acids in RNA greater range of activity Viruses don’t usually use DNA to code use RNA instead Translating looking up of 2 amino acids catalyzed by RNA Biochemistry 110, Week 2 Origin of life o Key event evolution fo membranes separating cells from the environment o Origin hypothesis evokes proteins or clay o Double origin theory coding system and catalysis evolved separately 2/3/16 Cell o Basic unit of life o Biomembrane enclosed, semipermeable, respiratory chain, really complex o Four main biomolecules: proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, polysaccharides o Metabolism and energy transformations o Membranes highly organized Prokaryotes and Eukaryote o Prokarytoes before the nucleus Bacteria and archaea Organized DNA in nucleoid Has no nuclear membrane Bacteria and organelles o Eukaryotes: true nucleus Well defined nucleus Surrounded by a nuclear membrane Similar to archaea molecular biology Cytoplasm o Viscous contents of cell contained when plasma membrane o Very organized, cytoskeleton, cytol o Cytosol aqueous part o Cytoskeleton highly organized network of fibrous proteins that supports cell Nucleus o Hoses genome (DNA) site of replication and transcription o Has a double membrane o Nucleolus sit e of ribosomal RNA Synthesis Mitochondria o ATP energy, currency, production o Two membranes (inner and outer) not double o Inner membrane is foiled ER o Smooth and rough o Rough has ribosomes proteins excreted from ER Chloroplasts o Photosynthesis, only in plants (ATP, sugar and oxygen production) o Three membranes one double membrane and an inner membrane o Stackes of grana preform photosynthesis Golgi Complex Biochemistry 110, Week 2 o Process and secreted and membrane protiens o Like post office Lysosomes o Degradation of old cell components or ingested materials o Low pH acidic to denature proteins o Degrade enzymes as well Mitochondria and Chloroplasts o Evolved from bacteria that were endocytosed (ingested) o Contain their own bacterium – like genomes and ribosomes (make own proteins) o Genomes vary in size o Maternal DNA in mitochondria o Pretty good idea of which bacterium was ingested Mitochondria DNA o Small genome o Encodes own ribosomes for protein making o Some energy production genes o ATPase making ATP and cell respiration o Different mDNA have different genomes o Mitochondria and nucleus collaborate on protein Mitochondria and Chloroplasts theory of endosymbiosis o Evolved from bacteria that formed a symbiotic relationship with ancestral cell o Genome bacteria like (circular with no introns) o Ribosomes are bacteria like (structure and function) o Genomes moved to nucleus over evolutionary time period o Ribosomes are small o E. Coli classic Bacteria o Mitochondria cant live on its own given genes away Domains of Life o Five Kingdoms o Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, .Animalia o Don’t reflect phylogenetic relationships reveled by molecular analyses 2/5/16 Energy, Enthalpy and Entropy Reaction rate and reaction direction are different thermodynamically Sun, oxidation of organic and inorganic molecules support life and living organisms Photosynthesis and respiration o Photosynthesis uses solar energy to synthesize sugars o Cellular respiration oxidized sugars as foundation to produce energy and fixed carbon o Plants carbon dioxide and water form oxygen and sugar through calvin cycle and split oxygen and hydrogen to from water, uses sunlight energy Animalia eat sugars and breakdown to form carbon dioxide from sugars and oxygen o Energy used to do life Biochemistry 110, Week 2 Oxidation and reduction (Redox) o Oxidation reaction involve transfer of electron from donor to acceptor o Oxidation: loss of electrons, substance losing electrons is the reducing reagent o Reduction: gains electrons, Substance gaining electrons oxidizing agent o Alkaline (lipids) most reduced carbon – CH2 o Carbon dioxide has the most oxidized carbon o More bonds to oxygen make the carbon more oxidized o Oxygen keeps most of the electrons because more electronegative then carbon Release of Energy o potential energy –reduced carbon changes to kinetic energy by breaking bonds o ATP ADP and phosphate ion (lots of negative charges easy to separate because of charge repulsion Chemical Equilibrium o Rates of forwards and reverse reaction are equal o No change in amount of products or reactants o Equilibrium constant ratio of products to reactants at equilibrium o Not effected by the rate of reaction o Reaction rate described by equilibrium constant Free Energy Change ∆ o G determines the direction reaction ∆ o G < 0 reaction exergonic, releases energy and goes forward (forms products) ∆ o G=0, reaction at equilibrium ∆ o G >0, reaction is endergonic, needs energy reaction occurs backwards Reaction rate o Reaction rate determined by activation energy o Activation energy increased by a catalysts Activation energy o Determines rate of reaction o High energy transition state intermediate o Reactants above products in an energy diagram is ∆ G and a favorable reaction o Transition state ( not energetically favored) o Catalyst stabilized and lower transition state o Higher transition state slower reaction Catalysts o Increase reaction rate o Doesn’t change reaction direction o Decreases activation energy Enzymes o Biological catalysts remain unchanged during a reaction Biochemistry 110, Week 2 o Almost all reactions in a cell are catalyzed by enzymes o Enzymes bid to substrates by multiple weak interactions o Substrates are reactants o Enzymes + substrates products o Decrease activation energy stabilizes transition states o Enzymes can be both proteins and RNA o Ribosomes RNA enzyme Life and Thermodynamics o 1 law equivalence of heat and work (conservation of energy) nd o 2 law heat doesn’t pass from a cooler to a hotter body, entropy of a closed system can only increase o Organization takes energy o Systems easily become disordered
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