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Chapter outline

by: Desiree Notetaker

Chapter outline Geography 110

Desiree Notetaker
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.77
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About this Document

Key words in the chapter of Earth-Sun Geometry and the Seasons.
Physical Geography
Class Notes
physical geography, space, Big Bang Theory, seasons, axis, EARTH, Tropic of Capricorn, Tropic of Cancer, solar noon, diurnal cycle, celestial dome




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Desiree Notetaker on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geography 110 at California State University - Fullerton taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views.

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Date Created: 02/06/16
PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY Our Place in Space Big Bang Theory: The Universe emerged from a singular, enormously dense mass about 14 billion years ago. Evidence: 1) the most distant star clusters are moving away from us at a greater speed than those that are closer, and 2) amount of cosmic microwave background radiation is uniform throughout the universe – leftover energy from an early period of rapid expansion Galaxy: largest definable unit within the universe (ex. Milky Way is our galaxy) Oblate spheroid: The Earth is not a perfect circle. It bulges at the Equator, and flattened at the poles The bulge is caused by a centrifugal force Sun angle: angle at which the sun’s rays strike Earth’s surface Relatively high at low latitudes, more intense solar radiation Subsolar point: Point on Earth where the sun angle is 90 degrees; solar radiation strikes the surface more directly. Rays are perpendicular to the surface. Migrates between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn over a course of a year. Perihelion: Point of the Earth’s orbit where the Earth to Sun distance is about 147 million km. Aphelion: Point where Earth is farthest from the Sun about 152 million km. Axis: an imaginary line. Extends through the center of Earth from pole to pole. It’s tilted at 23.5 degrees. Earth rotates on its axis, resulting in day/night cycle. Circle of Illumination: The boundary between day and night. During the rotation, one half of the earth is illuminated International Date Line: The beginning and end of each calendar. Located at 180 degrees longitude. The Seasons Spring Equinox: (also called the vernal equinox). The official beginning oththe spstng season in the Northern Hemisphere; fall in the Southern Hemisphere –March 20 or 21 . The subpolar point is located at the Equator. Neither spring nor southern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun. th st Summer Solstice: Occurs June 20 - 21 . First day of summer in the Northern Hemisphere; winter in the Southern Hemisphere. The subpolar point is located at the Tropic of Cancer –line of latitude at 23.5 degrees. Latitudes above 66.5 degrees north receive 24hours of daylight during this time, this is called land of the midnight Sun. In contrast, latitudes above 66.5 degrees south receive 24 hours of darkness. Fall Equinox: (also called autumnal equinox). Occurs September 22 -23 . First day of fall in the Northern Hemisphere and spring in the Southern. The subpolar point is once again at the Equator. All locations receive equal hours of day and night, because neither hemisphere is tilted toward the sun. Winter Solstice: Occurs December 21-22. Winter in the Northern Hemisphere; summer in the Southern. The northern hemisphere is at its greatest tilt away from the Sun; the southern is tilted towards it. The subpolar point is at 23.5 degrees south –Tropic of Capricorn. Latitudes above the Arctic Circle experience 24 hours of darkness; higher than the Antarctic Circle experience 24 hours of daylight.  If the axis of Earth were not tilted, there would be no seasons.  Solstice=subsolar point is at 23.5 N or S.; Equinox=when the sun is directly over the Equator. Human Interactions  How we see ad experience geometry of Earth-Sun Solar noon: when the Sun reaches its highest position as it arcs across the sky. Diurnal cycle: a 24-hour cycle Celestial dome: a sphere that shows the Sun’s arc and seasonal migration.


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