PSY 303, Week 2 Notes
PSY 303, Week 2 Notes PSY 303
Popular in Adolescent Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Razan Alkhazaleh on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 303 at Pace University taught by Robert Rahni in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Adolescent Psychology in Psychlogy at Pace University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
02/02/2016 ADOLESCENT CURRENT NEWS, for extra credit throughout the semester + studies after 2007 concerning adolescent/parent relationship • Murray Bowen: family therapist, speaks of the concept of enmeshment (opposite of differentiation)— ex. when your parents are always in your business, advising you, wanting to know everything you’re up to (overprotectiveness) • Puberty: rapid physical maturation (primarily in early adolescence, and ends long before adolescence is exited) takes place between 9-16 for most individuals • Determinant of puberty: we do not know/understand what initiates puberty, unknown whether complex factors are a cause or consequence of puberty. (chicken or the egg issue— with hormones, heredity, etc.) • Increase in lipton: protein hormone that regulates energy intake • There is increased interest in the role of birth weight, rapid weight gain in infancy, obesity, and sociocultural factors might play in pubertal onset. • Heredity: puberty is NOT an environmental accident— but environmental factors can inﬂuence the onset and duration of puberty (sociocultural factors) • Scientists have recently have begun to conduct molecular genetics in an attempt to identify speciﬁc genes that are linked to onset and progression • Hormones: secreted by endocrine glands and carried through blood • Androgen: main class of male sex hormones (testosterone is an androgen, and plays an important role in male pubertal development when levels increase) • Estrogen: main class of female sex hormones (estradiol is an estrogen, important role in female pubertal development when its levels rise) • Growth spurt: growth slows throughout childhood, and puberty brings forth rapid increases in growth • on average occurs around age 9 for girls, and 11for boys • peak of pubertal change at 11½ and 13½ for boys • height increases at 3½ inches for girls, and 4 inches for boys • Sociocultural and environmental factors: recent research indicates cultural variations and early experiences maybe related to earlier pubertal onset • adolescents in developed countries and large urban areas reach puberty earlier than those in less developed countries and rural areas • Adoption, low socioeconomic status, father absence, marital hardship, child maltreatment, etc. causes individuals to enter puberty earlier • Secular trend: recent analysis calls into question blank statements that puberty has been rising in recent years • study shows that obesity onsets early puberty in females, but obesity in males delays the onset of puberty. • PSYCHOLOGICAL DIMENSIONS OF PUBERTY: • Body image: for an adolescent to care so much about their body image is not abnormal— unless there are eating disorders • naturally pubertal males have an increase is muscle mass— also more pressure on guys to be “bigger” and “stronger” females have more issues with body image, because there is an increase in body fat rather than • natural muscle mass— pressure on girls to be “thinner” yet “curvy” (waist to hip ratio or .7 speciﬁcally to be most attractive) • Body art: researches conﬂicted whether or not those involved in body art (tattoos, body piercings, etc) is for individuality, independence, or rebellion • Hormones and behavior: hormonal factors alone are not responsible for adolescent behavior 02/02/2016 increased estrogen levels in females is linked to depression • • increased androgen levels in males is linked to aggression • parent/adolescent relationships, stress, changes in appetite, sexual activity, etc., play a role in either suppressing or releasing hormones • Individuals turn to drugs or certain behaviors for hormone release (feel good hormones— dopamine, serotonin, etc.) • adolescents perceive themselves differently based on whether they mature earlier or later than their peers— because they do NOT want to be different • Researchers have found that early maturation in females increases their vulnerability to many problems • in an effort to ﬁt in (because they don’t look like their peer group) so they adopt behaviors of older peer groups— generalized engagements: sex, drugs, drinking, eating disorders (NOTALL early maturing girls) • Health: many adolescent behaviors are linked to poor health habits, and early death in adults begins during adolescence • experts recognize that whether or not adolescents develop health problems depends primarily on their behavior • adolescents underutilize health services • a majority of our actions as adults originate in adolescence • Expert goals?— • Why might adolescents develop poor health habits?— • ((((UC BERKLEY LONGITUDINALSTUDY ON EARLY/LATE MATURATIONAND SELF PERCEPTION)))) Males Females Early Maturation - positive peer relations - associate with older peer - positive self perceptions groups - positive peer relations were to - a lesser extent age inappropriate behavior Late Maturation - better sense of identity - conforming - sociable - more responsible - more self-controlled • Why do adolescents engage in risk taking behavior? Physical, neurological explanations (to be discusssed next week) • deaths 15-24, half are due to unintentional injury, 1/3 from automobile crash (half of those are due to alcohol inﬂuence), 1/4. gun violence • homicide is 2nd leading cause of death, suicide is the 3rd leading cause (in adolescents) • Emerging adults health: more prone to death than adolescents, because they engage in more health- compromising behaviors • Sleep: surge of interest in adolescent sleeping patterns • 45% of adolescents get inadequate sleep on school nights (less than 8 hours)— 2006 study though when given the opportunity, they sleep on average of 9 hours and 25 minutes •
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