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Bio Week 2

by: Regan McGillick

Bio Week 2 BIO 151-001

Regan McGillick

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These notes dive a little more deeper into the function, makeup and qualities of cells
Biology of Humans
Kelly L. Murray/ Kelly Jo Wright
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan McGillick on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 151-001 at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire taught by Kelly L. Murray/ Kelly Jo Wright in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Biology of Humans in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire.


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Date Created: 02/06/16
Week 2 (2/1, 2/3, 2/5) --Origins of Life—  how did life on the earth begin? -Review of the 7 characteristic from week 1: (1)Evolution: **remember, for the sake of this class, Professor Murray has states that this topic will be viewed through scientific lenses, only looking at given theories and hypothesizes; not using non- science (a) It is more than wondering how the earth and life began, but more simply put: a “unifying concept that there is always change”; change is the only consistency. (b) To Occur: (i) heritable (ii)genetic variation (iii) natural selection 1. creates diversity (c)Scientists look at the material evidence of fossils, bio geographical patterns in species, selective breeding  ADDED NOTES (d)Homologies: similarity due to share descent: (i) Morphology =structural form, shape, (body skeleton) (ii)Molecular = structure of proteins and DNA (iii) Developmental (e)Many mechanisms of Evolution: (i) Mutation (ii)Natural selection: variation of species higher fitnessmore reproduction (iii) Genetic drift  Evolution- over many generations via many means – not best explanation of origin of life The Origins of Life: -page 514 of the text book includes a clear diagram and descriptions of the chronological birth of life. (USE IT) -WHAT WAS THE EARTH LIKE; (A) The beginning of the atmosphere: CO2, H2O, H2, N2, CH4, NH3= NO OXYGEN a. No oceans, over time Earth cooled down= condensation of rain (B) First Cells: organic molecules that cam from the atmospheric gases=intense radiation, heat, electrical discharge. a. Hypothesis= electrical discharge: amino acids-> sugars, fatty acids, nucleotides. b. Hollow, cell membranes c. Relied on anaerobic metabolism (no oxygen) d. Condensed with other cells i. Survive when split, respond to change in environment, take in organic molecules. (C) How did they reproduce?? a. Nucleotides are self replicating molecules ex: RNA i. Thus DNA must have come from RNA ii. RNA replicated “spontaneously”  have scientists demonstrated in a lab how life began? –NO (not an entire living organism)  In won words what is the biological evolution?  What is evolution? (D) Photosynthetic organisms: (check out page 516) a. Cells developed into plants (essentially) i. Thus as plants take in the CO2 from the atmosphere they give off OXYGEN oxygen: is toxic to anaerobic cells, broke down energy, this then created cells that depended on O2- a new alteration to the atmosphere (E) Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Cells: a. With the O2 this then created the environment necessary to produce new type of cell i. Its just bacteria ii. A characteristic of prokaryotic cells is that they are asexual reproducing cells, using the process of binary fission iii. The theory is that these cells that reproduced began to change their chemical makeup; due to the changes in the environment (F) Eukaryotic Cells: a. “true nucleus” b. cell organelles: meaning that they divide up their labor of the cells into “complex bodies”-like humans, animals, plants, and fungi i. Eukarya- humans c. Rise to animals i. DNA with nucleus ii. First multilayered organisms d. Unicellularitymulticellularity (G) Cells to Organ Systems: ch4 (pages 80-87) a. In a multicellular organism- all have a Special Function b. Ex: Tissues: groups of cells that work together i. E1. simple (molecules pass through) 2. stratified (thick m protection 3. Inside our mouths, glands, inside/outside of stomach ii. Connective tissues: connect tendons, bones, blood, and ligaments. iii. Muscular tissues: cardiac muscles: allows contraction, relaxation, and muscles to stretch iv. Nervous tissues: to receive and transmit stimuli 1. atoms 4. tissues 2. molecules 5. organs 6.organ 3. cells systems 7.human organism The Structure & Functions of Human Cells: (pgs 48- 67) --humans = trillions of cells, even more really….there is A LOT ok --Cell composition: a. plasma/cell membrane b. cytoplasm c. organelles (A) Cell Membrane Structure: < spongy, liquid-nothing in cell is fixed> a. Phospholipids (fat molecules containing phosphorus) b. Proteins – transporting and reception c. Cholesterol – for creating a rigid form—not always a bad thing d. Surface markers- carbohydrates, cell recognition i. Why some people’s immune system and bodies do not work well with organ donor transplants A. Phospholipid molecules: a. Hydrophilic- goes outward i. “philic” fill with water and dissolve in water b. Hydrophobic-core goes inward i. “phobic”-fearing, or repelling, will NOT dissolve in water **the cell=is semipermeable or selectively permeable -have passages for water -balance of both-enough water -exception is CO2 and O2 which can pass through cells membrane Soluble: Solvent: H20. Solute: salt; glucose Functions of Cell membrane: a. structure b. protection c. regulation -How do substances pass through cell membrane?- I. Diffusion: small molecules= high concentration to low concentration -Ex: Spray perfume or pour coffee creamers, notice how it takes a process for that creamer to reach the bottom of the coffee mug II. Osmosis: diffusion of a liquid water, high -> low -cell membrane- unequal concentrations of solute a. Isotonic Conditions b. Hypotonic Conditions c. Hypertonic Conditions III. Facilitated Transport: molecules attach to the transport protein -shape changing -act as transferors IV. Active Transport: can go against and concentration -they almost force their way through membrane with the use of ATP energy --Functions of cells— -Cells Functions: -gather raw materials -excrete waste -make micro molecules (molecules of life) -grow & reproduce -Cells Structure: -outer border -infrastructure for support -information center -manufacturing facility -refining; packaging -transport systems -areas for regarding waste  each type of cell (muscle, nerve, blood) –all have an even more specific function and abilities -those that serve the same function1 -Each all serve 3 principles: 1. its activities are proportional to its volume of cytoplasm-affects size, need raw materials 2. all materials, energy, waste must cross plasma membrane to leave or enter the cell objects grow-> volume increases-> increase in surface area Eukaryotic: Prokaryotic -animals, plants -no nucleus -nucleus -one chromosome -chromosomes -unicellular -multicellular -no membrane -membrane bound nucleus -bacteria and archaea -lysosomes -no lysosomes -microtubules -no microtubules -endoplasmic reticulum -no endoplasmic reticulum -mitochondria -no mitochondria -cytoskeleton -may or may no cytoskeleton -DNA wrapping -small ribosomes -ribosomes -vesicles -vesicles -no Golgi apparatus -Golgi apparatus -no chlorophyll -chloroplasts (in plants) -flagella -flagella -no nuclear membrane -permeability nuclear membrane -no cell wall -cell wall -vacuoles -vacuoles


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