Psychology of Aging Week 1 Notes
Psychology of Aging Week 1 Notes 22392
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenedy Ramos on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 22392 at Gonzaga University taught by Dr. Wolfe in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Aging in Psychlogy at Gonzaga University.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
Psychology of Aging Week 1 Notes Life expectancy is the average number of years people in a particular cohort group of people that were born in a set number of years example baby boomers 1950 1964 are expected to live Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years people born in a speci c year that is a birth cohort are expected to live This is affected by factors such as level of nutrition sanitary conditions and medical care including antibiotics and immunizations available to the population of a particular country Life expectancy at birth varies from country to country for example in more developed countries like Germany Japan or United States more resources are available so the life expectancy at birth is longer than less developed countries like Afghanistan Uganda or Rwanda Life span is the maximum longevity or extreme upper limit of time that members of a species can live There have been reports of women reaching ages of 122 and 130 but they aren39t formally established enough to have a real effect Because of new technology and medicine breakthroughs we now live closer to the maximum human longevity particularly in developed countries Compression of mortality refers to a phenomenon whereby a greater proportion of deaths will occur during a very narrow time period toward the upper limit of the human life span Compression of morbidity means that illness or extreme disability will occur only during a narrow period of time immediately prior to death Although life expectancy has been increasing human life span has changed very little Biological Aging Process Primary aging senescence refers to the unavoidable inevitable biological processes that are universal meaning that all members of a species are affected lts effects may not become apparent for many years but primary aging is set in motion early in life and progresses gradually over time Primary aging is also intrinsic meaning that it is determined by factors within the organism Secondary aging refers to processes experienced by most but no necessarily all members of a species It is neither inevitable nor universal Secondary aging is associated with defects in biological functioning resulting from hostile environmental in uences therefore is attributed to disease disuse and abuse Diseases can accelerate aging like cancer so can disuse like lack of exercise as well as abuse exposure to sun with no sunscreen poor nutrition smoking etc These theories of biological aging are often grouped into two general categories programmed and stochastic Programmed Theories of Biological Aging Programmed theories consider aging to be under the control of a genetically based blueprint and therefore are closely related to primary aging Time clock theory is based on the idea that cells from an infant reproduce more often than older adults This theory opened the door to more research ideas recently scientists have been focusing on telomeres end caps on the tail ends of chromosomes because when cells reproduce the ends of the chromosomes lose a bit of each other and when they become too short the cells can no longer reproduce Immune theory is based on the fact that immune system is programmed to maintain its ef ciency for a certain amount of time after which it starts to decline Some theorize that the immune system projects how long an individual will be able to live but it is too early to determine and little to no sufficient research reported or occurring Evolutionary theory states that members of a species are genetically programmed to bear and rear their young After reproducing and giving birth the organism is thought to be programmed to then decline and die Stochastic Theories of Biological Aging Stochastic theories focus on random damage to our vital systems that occurs with the process of living so these theories are closely related to secondary aging Support for these theories comes from the fact that aging occurs at different rates for even identical twins meaning that genetic makeup couldn39t be the origin of aging Error theory states that errors occur at the cellular level resulting in the production of faculty molecules Errors can result from the organism39s metabolic processes or exposure from environmental factors like radiation Wear and Tear theory states that a species body can only bear so much damage over the course of time and eventually it builds up
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