Chapter 2: Biology of the Mind
Chapter 2: Biology of the Mind Psych 1010
Popular in Introduction to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Science
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views.
Reviews for Chapter 2: Biology of the Mind
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/16
Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 2: Biology of the Mind Human Biology Everything psychological is simultaneously biological Phrenology – study of bumps on the skull to reveal the idea of localization of function (that different parts of the brain have certain functions) proposed by German physician Franz Gall in the early 1800s Biological Perspective of Psychology – concerned with relations between biology and behavior o The body includes nerve cells which conduct electricity and send chemical messages across a gap separating the cells o Specific brain regions serve specific functions o The information processed in the brain helps to construct our experiences of sights, sounds, meanings, memories, pain, and passion o The brain is adaptive and altered by experiences Humans are biopsychosocial systems Neurons as Information Transmitters Neuron – a nerve cell; the building block of the nervous system The Structure of a Neuron o Cell body and branching fibers o Dendrite – the neuron’s branch that extends and receives messages to conduct impulses toward the cell body o Axon – an extension of the neuron that passes messages from its branches to other neurons and muscles and glands Dendrites listen and axons speak o Myelin Sheath – a fatty tissue that covers axons on some neurons allowing for faster transmission of neural impulses between nodes Glial Cells – also known as “glue cells” that support and protect neurons and aid in neural transmission o Glial cells may play a role in learning, thinking, and memory (Fields, Miller) Action Potential – a neural impulse or electric charge that travels down an axon in the exchange of negatively and positively charged particles o Neurons create electricity from chemical events and exchange ions Resting Potential – the axon is in a state in which positive sodium ions are outside the membrane and negative potassium ions are on the inside o Selectively Permeable – the surface of the axon is selective about what passes through it Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Depolarization – the axon opens allowing negative ions in and, in a chain effect, negative ions enter the rest of the axon’s segments causing the charge difference on its outside and inside to disappear o Refractory Period – a time of inactivity after the neuron fires during which the neuron sends positive ions back out of the axon The neuron The energy The action The signal is receives potential signals to threshold is travels down transmitted to another reached and cell by crossing the fire or not action potential the axon synaptic gap between moves neurons Signals may be excitatory (an accelerator) or inhibitory (a brake) Threshold – a level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse o If an excitatory signal is greater than an inhibitory one, the signals together will form an action potential AllorNone Response – a neuron’s reaction to fire at full capability or to not fire at all Communication between Nerve Cells Synapse – the area between the tip of an axon that is sending a chemical message and the dendrite or cell body of the neuron that is receiving the message o The gap between the two is called the synaptic gap or cleft Neurotransmitter – a chemical messenger that crosses the synaptic gap between neurons and binds to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, affecting whether or not the neuron will form a neural impulse o Neurotransmitters are received by the dendrites into certain receptor sites by “key and lock” in which the neurotransmitters fit perfectly into the sites Neurotransmitters’ Influence on Behavior Reuptake – the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by the sending neuron o The remaining chemicals are taken back into the neuron to be used again later Neurotransmitter Function Malfunctions Acetylcholine Muscle action, learning, Neurons producing memory acetylcholine deteriorate in those with Alzheimer’s Dopamine Movement, learning, Oversupply found with attention, emotion Schizophrenia, Undersupply found in tremors, loss of motor control with Parkinson’s and ADHD Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Serotonin Mood regulation, hunger, Undersupply found with sleep, arousal depression (antidepressants usually raise serotonin level) Norepinephrine Alertness, arousal Undersupply found with depressed mood GABA Inhibitory Undersupply found with seizures, tremors, insomnia Glutamate Excitatory, memory Oversupply found with migraines and seizures Endorphins – meaning “morphine within,” these natural opiatelike neurotransmitters are linked to pain control and pleasure o When drugs are added to the body, the brain my halt the production of natural opiates in an attempt to keep chemical balance Agonist – increases neurotransmitter action by filling receptor sites and activating them like neurotransmitters would o These can act as natural painkillers Antagonist – molecule that inhibits neurotransmitter action by filling the receptor sites so neurotransmitters cannot enter and activate the neuron The Functions and Parts of the Nervous System Nervous System – a network of electrochemical communications containing all nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems o Central Nervous System – includes the brain and spinal cord o Peripheral Nervous System – includes the rest of the system and the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body Nerves – part of the peripheral nervous system that are bundles of axon that form neural cables with central nervous system’s muscles, glands, and sense organs Information travels throughout the nervous system through three types of neurons 1. Sensory (Afferent) – carries information from the sensory receptors or the body’s tissue to the brain and spinal cord 2. Motor (Efferent) – carries information from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles, tissues, and glands 3. Interneurons – contained within the brain and spinal cord, these neurons communicate internally and process information between the sensory inputs and motor outputs Peripheral Nervous System o Somatic – control skeletal muscles and voluntary movements o Autonomic – controls the glands and muscles of internal organs (selfregulated) Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Sympathetic – mobilizes energy and arouses (including fightorflight response) Parasympathetic – calms and conserves energy aiding in rest and digestion Central Nervous System o Neural Networks – the brain’s neurons combine into work groups “Neurons that fire together, wire together” o Spinal Cord – connects the peripheral nervous system to the brain and is filled with interneurons o Reflex – a simple and automatic response to sensory stimulus The Endocrine System Endocrine System – the slower chemical communication system in which a set of glands releases hormones into the bloodstream o Hormones – chemical messengers made by the endocrine glands that travel through the bloodstream and affect other tissues in the body Hormones can act on the interest of sex, hunger, and aggression Adrenal Gland – glands above the kidneys that release hormones to give the body arousal during periods of stress o Norepinephrine/Epinephrine (Noradrenaline/Adrenaline) – hormones that increase heart rate, blood sugar, and blood pressure o Adrenal glands receive messages from sympathetic nervous system that provide energy for fightorflight response Pituitary Gland – under the influence of the hypothalamus, these glands regulate growth and other endocrine glands (“master gland”) o Oxytocin – promotes social trust and birthing (“the bonding hormone”) Ways to Study the Mind Lesion – either natural or experimental destruction of brain tissue Electroencephalogram (EEG) – electrodes on the scalp create a recording of electrical waves across the brain’s surface PET Scan – displays where a radioactive form of glucose travels while the brain performs a given task MRI – magnetic fields and radio waves are used to form computer generated images of soft tissue and the anatomy of the brain fMRI – reveals blood flow and brain activity through comparison of other scans showing function and structure of the brain The Brainstem Brainstem – the central core of the brain that starts where the spinal cord goes into the skull and is responsible for automatic survival instincts and coordination o Medulla – the base of the brainstem that control heartbeat and breathing Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Pons – coordinate automatic and unconscious movements Thalamus – the center of sensory control at the top of the brainstem that helps send messages to sensory areas in the cortex and responds to the cerebellum and medulla (“sensory switchboard”) Reticular Formation – the nerve network which travels through the brainstem and into the thalamus, controlling arousal Cerebellum – “little brain” at the rear of the brainstem that processes sensory input, coordinates voluntary movement and balance, and enables nonverbal learning and memory The brain processes most of the information outside of conscious awareness The Limbic System Limbic System – “border” of the neural system below the cerebral hemispheres that connects thoughts to the body and is associated with emotions and drives o Hippocampus – the neural center that aids in the processing of explicit memories to be stored and works with the amygdala to form emotionally charged memories o Amygdala – neural clusters that are linked to emotions such as rage and fear o Hypothalamus – neural structure below the thalamus that helps maintain the body, controls the endocrine system through the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward such as sexual activity, eating, and body temperature Acts as a reward center; experimentation with rats shows electric stimulation in the hypothalamus caused the rats to continuously return to the same place they received the stimulation Functions of the Cerebral Cortex Regions Cerebral Cortex – interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres to control information and process it o This is wrinkled in order to create more surface area for the 20 billion neurons on the brain Frontal Lobes – associated with speaking, muscle movement, and making plans or judgments Parietal Lobes – receive sensory input concerning touch and body positioning o Includes the sensory cortex Occipital Lobes – receive information from visual fields in which visuals are sent to the opposite side of the body Temporal Lobes – receives auditory information from opposite sides of the body Motor Cortex – at the back of the frontal lobes, this part of the brain controls voluntary movements o More complex animals have more cortical space to integrate and associate information Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Somatosensory Cortex – found at the front of the parietal lobes and registers body touch and movement sensations Association Areas – involved in higher executive mental functions including learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking o Complex activities translate throughout different areas in the brain Brain Plasticity and Neurogenesis Plasticity – the ability of the brain to alter itself through reorganization after being damaged or to build new pathways based on experience o ConstraintInduced Therapy – works to get a damaged area of the brain to work again by forcing someone to use the weaker parts of their body and brain Brain and spinal cord neurons do not regenerate and some brain functions are preassigned to certain areas Neurogenesis – the formation of new neurons Split Brains Corpus Callosum – a band of neural fibers that connects the hemispheres of the brain and sends messages between them Split Brain – the corpus callosum is severed, isolating the hemispheres o Can cure wholebrain seizures o Perceptual tasks, inference making abilities, and intuition are in the right hemisphere and speech, logic, detail attention, and calculation are found in the left
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'