Psych Chapter 3 continued
Psych Chapter 3 continued PSYC 1010
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Payton Chance on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 02/06/16
CHAPTER 3 CONTINUED THE NEURAL IMPULSE: Resting Potential: neuron is negatively charged at rest Action Potential: positive electrical charge that sweeps through the neuron. All-or-nothing principle: neuron either ﬁres or does not ﬁre (no difference in strength) - must reach a threshold before ﬁring - Speed varies based on thickness of myelin sheath and length of neuron. - thicker myelin the faster the speed. - smaller neuron’s the faster the message is sent SYNAPSES AND NEUROTRANSMITTERS: Synapse: space between axon of sending neuron and dendrites of receiving neuron Neurotransmitters: chemicals that carry messages across the synapse - ﬁt like a lock and key to receptor sites on the receiving neuron. Dopamine: inﬂuences movement learning, attention, and emotion. Serotonin: affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. Reuptake: the re- absorption of neurotransmitters - Selective Seratonin Reuptake Inhibiitors (SSRIs) stops the reuptake of the serotonin so that the next time a neurotransmitter comes through there will be excess. BRAIN STRUCTURES AND FUNCTIONS: The Brain Stem: Thalamus: Relays information between lower and higher brain centers Reticular formation: diffuse collection of neurons involved in arousal and stereotyped patterns such as walking Pons: governs sleep and arousal Medulla: governs breathing and reﬂexes Cerebellum: rounded structure involved in motor coordination. Limbic System Structures: Hypothalamus: governs eating, drinking, and sex; plays a role in emotion and stress. Medulla: governs breaking and reﬂexes. Cerebellum: rounded sructure involved in motor coordination Hippocampus: involved in memory Amygdala: involved in fear and the discrimination of objects necessary for survival. Brain functions: Cerebral Cortex: Extensive, wrinkled outer layer of the forebrain, governs higher brain functions, such as thinking, learning, and consciousness. Squished up because theres more surface area and it also makes the neurons very small so they can send messages a lot faster. Eye Pituitary gland Spinal cord Lobes of the brain: Temporal lobe: hearing and advanced visual processing Occipital lobe: vision. Parietal lobe: body sensation Frontal Lobe: cognition, recent memory, planning of movement, and some aspects of emotion. Most complicated and the last to mature. Examples: - If a person’s cerebellum were damaged what would you expect to be damaged? A: balance and coordination - The most complex mental functions such as thinking and planning take place where? A: cerebral cortex THE BRAIN’S HEMISPHERES - Hemispheres operate contra laterally ( the left half controls the right half of your body the right have controls the left half of your body? - Leteralization: the dominance of one hemisphere - Left: verbal abilities, thinking, reading, reasoning; sequential (organized and logical) - Right: visual- spatial, emotional expression, artistic; global (the big picture) - Communicates via the Corpus Callosum - think bundle of a lot of neurons that run through the two hemispheres of the brain ex: the guy with two brains he still sees the same stuff and processes it the same way because he has information going to both sides of the brain. Only when he is being tested and when on purpose they only simulate one side of the brain is when he can’t do normal things. GENES AND BEHAVIOR Dominant- recessive genes principle: dominant genes override recessive genes - recessive genes appear only if both genes in a pair are recessive Behavior genetics: the study of heredity’s inﬂuence on behavior Genotype: a person’s genetic heritage Phenotype: the individuals observable characteristics. - A person’s genotype and phenotype are not always the same.