Week 3 notes --- tissues continued
Week 3 notes --- tissues continued EEB 240
Popular in Human Anatomy
Popular in Ecology, Evolution, and Marine Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stefanie Schumacher on Saturday February 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EEB 240 at a university taught by Dr. Alston in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
Reviews for Week 3 notes --- tissues continued
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/06/16
Week 3 Notes—Tissues Continued Membranes Combine 2 or more tissues together o Mucous Membrane (CT and Epithelial Cells) Loose CT—laminapropria Epithelium varies depending on where it is Lining body cavities that have openings to the outside Digestive- columnar Upper respiratory- pseudo stratified Urinary- transitional o Serous membrane (CT and Epithelium— mesalthelium) No openings to outside Thoracic cavity heart and lung Abdominal cavity Secretes serous fluid watery; lubricates o Synovial membrane (CT and Epithelial simple squamous; not continuous) Joint cavity Synovial fluid cushions joints o Cutaneous membrane (CT and Epithelial stratified squamous) Both dense and loose connective tissue Skin the skin is an organ Skin Protects, prevents water loss, protective against disease, regulates body temp, it is the biggest sense organ, metabolically active, synthesizes vitamin D, and gets rid of waste(sweat) o Epidermis Superficial (1 ) layer Epithelial tissue o Dermus Connective tissue 2 ndlayer of skin o Subcutaneous layer Adipose tissue (stores fat) o Hypodermus Deepest (3 ) layer Epidermus Deepest basal layer o Stratum Basale Stratum o Attached to basal lamina Nervous stem cells (touch) Melanocytes (pigment) Cuboidal Epidermal stem cells o Stratum Spinosum Keratinocytes Tonofibrils 2 Macula (binds keratinocytes) attaches tonofibrils to cytoskeleton Melanocytes o Stratum granulosm Keratinocytes produce protein to make skin water-proof Stain easily under microscope (includes vesicles) Cells become flatter within this layer Cells begin to lose organelles at this level o Stratum corneum Contains flattened cells full of keratin (tough and H2O resistant) Reduces water loss from skin Contains dead skin cells surface of skin o Stratum lucidum Thin, glossy thick skin Due to heavy stratum corneum o Palms of hands and soles of feet no hair Dermus o Dermal papilli- patterned surface on surface of skin o 2 regions: papillary region- loose CT (not as dense) Reticular region- dense irregular connective tissue Skin Color 3 o Melanin—found in melanocytes (in deep epidermis) Pigment (some shade of brown) Determined by hue and tendency for amount of melatonin based on genes and environment Sun moves melanin to surface of epidermis (causing a tan) When epidermis sheds we lose the “tan” (2 weeks) o Hemoglobin—found in Red Blood Cells (in dermis) o Not in epithelial tissue and cartilage No blood supply to surface of skin or cartilage (avascular) Color depends on O2 state o Little melanin allows you to see hemoglobin o When you get hot, blood vessels expand so hemoglobin becomes closer to surface Lack of O2 causes skin to turn blue and grey (holding breath until turning blue) For people with darker skin, you can look at mucous membranes (inside mouth) to see Pale color = constriction of blood vessels o Carotene Same pigment that makes carrots orange Found in stratum corneum and hypodermis Makes fat a yellow color 4 Plays a small role in skin color, but does show up in callous’ ( only in areas where stratum corneum is thick) o Bilirubin ( processed in liver) Goes into bile and out in feces Picked out of blood and is excreted in the urine (makes urine yellow) If liver is not working to process, your skin does the processing jaundice results from this o common in newborns o can indicate liver disease in adults to distinguish between jaundice and too much carotene in diet, look at whites of eyes jaundice= yellow eyes high carotene levels= white eyes Hair (accessory structure of skin) Comes out of folding of epidermis into dermis (hair follicle) At the bottom of follicle is the papilla with cells called the matrix (epidermal stem cells to produce hair) Papilla sticks into the bulb ( thicker part at end of hair when a hair is pulled out) Matrix cells get pushed up, die, and become keratinized o Grows from the bottom The shaft (the seen hair) has 3 layers 5 Follicle has 3 layers: Medulla (middle of structure) Cortex (overlying region) Cuticle (outer-most layer) Hair of small diameter might not have medulla (fine hair) Cuticle helps to make hair water- resistant o Hair grows in a cycle Grows Falls out New hair forms from bottom (pushes old out) Different growth rates and length of growth cycle depending on where on the body it is growing (shorter hair= shorter growth cycle) Disease, age, etc. can influence hair growth o Muscle for hair Arrector pili muscle (smooth muscle) Makes hair stand up (produces “goose bumps”) o In cold and fear o Sebaceous gland Oil gland (sebum secretion gland) Opens into follicle; makes hair and skin flexible Glands in skin (exocrine glands) Sweat gland 6 Watery secretion Sebaceous gland Also for palms and soles o Merocrine Sweat Gland Thermal regulation Watery sweat Controlled by nervous system o Aprican Sweat Gland (send chemical signals) Armpits, groin, and nipples Thicker Strong regulation of hormonal controls Syncing of menstrual cycles in females o Cerumineous glands External ear canal Waxy secretion with dead cells o Has property that insects will avoid o Mammary glands Breasts—big sweat glands modified to produce milk Finger Nail Mostly dead like hair Base of nail is a nail matrix (where it grows from) Because nails are not pigmented, you can see into the circulatory system (very vascular) Used to observe hemoglobin concentration 7 As long as nail matrix is not damaged in injury, another one will grow back When nails and hair “grow” after death, it is actually the skin around shrinking from dehydration 8
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'