Psych 361, Week 1 & 2
Psych 361, Week 1 & 2 Psych 361
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Psychology 361 – 1.15.16 • #2.5 of the Scientific Method is designing a study • 3 domains of development o Physical – body: changes in body, brain, growth and development of the fetus, physical changes in puberty o Cognitive – mind: mental processes, changes in language, memory, problem solving and intellectual skills, changes in the way children think and reason o Psychosocial – social & emotional: social interaction, social and emotional changes through play, parent/child social relationships, peer relationships Clicker Q: The The development of the ability to express different emotions during infancy relates most directly to their: Psychosocial development • Five Characteristics of Development (The 5 Ms) o Multidirectional: not just linear all the time, some aspects show growth and decline while others show no change ex) height (growth and decline), ex) memory (growth and decline) o Multicontextual: cohorts (generation), ex) different education systems, music, economic policies, schooling (higher education) § Socioeconomic status effects health (less nutritious diets), housing (where you live), education (can you go to college?), physical development (health issues, stunted growth, premature disease), cognitive development (working all the time to make ends meat, no time to cultivate mental health, brain atrophy) o Multicultural: development is also about culture; affects practices like breast-‐ feeding, baby carrying, hygiene, daycare; culture affects some things and some milestones are less sensitive to the effects of culture o Multidisciplinary: while we are affected by our genetics, nutrition of Multicontextual category also affects this, the same goes for the other disciplines in the slides o Malleability (Plasticity): siblings who are raised in the same environment can be affected differently by the same experiences ClickerQ: Which of the following is NOT one of the 5 Ms? Macrosystematic Macrosystems – larger social setting (cultural values, economic policies, politics) and are a sub-‐category of Multicontextual • Critical period: ex) if both eyes are not functioning in infancy and it is not corrected in that time, the depth perception is forever lost • Sensitive period: ex) 1-‐3 years is a sensitive period for language. Children can learn multiple languages at this time, THEY ARE SPONGES! If they are deprived of this, this process becomes more of a task. It is not critical, it is sensitive 2 Psychology 361 – 1.20.16 • Nature vs. Nurture: Two parents who are taller than average will most likely produce a child who is taller than average, however, factors like malnutrition can hinder this. o Epigenetics: smoking, stress, diet, etc. affect development markers of genetics § Explains why one twin may develop bipolar disorder and the other is fine o Reciprocal Gene Environment Model: impulsiveness is inheritable and that can influence the choices you make such as the environments we seek out (friend groups, living situations, jobs, etc.) Clicker Q: The example of individuals with a variant of an MAOA gene being predisposed to develop into psychopaths if environmental factors like trauma and abuse are present was used to illustrate: The complex manner in which nature and nurture interact. Part II: Theories • Theories explain data • They also allow us to make new predictions • They help us to organize our observations and ideas • They can be shown to be wrong • They can NOT be proven! Clicker Q: Which of the following is NOT true about theories? They can be proven right. Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud: Structural Model and Five Psychosexual Stages • Structural Model o Id: unconscious present at birth o Ego: conscious, keeps needs of id satisfied o Superego: moral judge, develops at the end of early childhood • 5 Psychosexual Stages o Oral o Anal o Phallic o Latency o Genital: believed development stops after puberty, this stage continues Clicker Q: Which of the following is NOT a problem with Freud’s theories: They focus on behavior which is too objective. Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory • Emphasized family and culture • Believed development continued throughout the lifespan • 8 Stages of Development: Adult problems echo childhood conflicts: attachment issues, etc. o Trust vs. Mistrust: birth-‐1 yr, trust is the positive side of the spectrum and caretaker will give basic needs, mistrust is negative side and caretaker is unreliable § Parents need to be sensitive to infants needs, soothe, feed, change them in order to get to a positive resolution o Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: ensuring successful resolution means parents give toddler freedom to explore, let toddler feed themselves, time and patience to let them dress themselves o Initiative vs. Guilt: children want to try new things; on guilt they feel guilty for wanting to or doing these adult-‐like activities. Parents should allow these activities to take place o Industry vs. Inferiority: Children compare self worth to others and is able to recognize disparities about themselves and others. Teachers should make sure children do not feel inferior. Emphasize the strong points o Identity vs. Role Confusion: 12-‐18 years (where course stops) Figuring out who they are. Allow adolescent to explore, they will form their identity. Pushing them to conform to parents’ views, adolescent will not form identity o Intimacy vs. Isolation: who do I want to be with, will I settle down, where am I going?, etc. Society has had a change as more and more young adults are in college for longer times, delays life decisions o Generativity vs. Stagnation: stagnation promotes mid life crisis. Am I satisfied? This stages calls for assisting the next generation o Integrity vs. Despair: Clicker Q: Which of the following is NOT true about Erik Erikson? Unlike Freud, he believed that development stops after puberty. Behaviorism • The behavioral Model emphasizes the role of learning and the importance of studying directly observable behavior • Pavlov: discovered classical conditioning • Watson: applied classical conditioning in humans o most famously known for conditioning Albert (the baby) into being afraid of a rat • Skinner: discovered operant conditioning o Punsishment is not useful, reinforce good behavior 2 Psychology 361 -‐ 1.22.16 • Social Learning Theory o We can learn by watching other people. o Modeling: People learn by observing other people then copying them § People are most likely to model behavior that was reinforced o Self-‐Efficacy: your belief in yourself § How long a person sticks to a diet or exercise regime. High self-‐efficacy can lead to high aspirations. Result of learning Clicker Q: Which of the following is NOT true about the children in the Bobo Doll Study? They were found to have higher baseline levels of aggressiveness • Cognitive Theory o Piaget developed one of the most influential theories o Thought discovery learning was most beneficial to children o Believed children created schemas: mini-‐theories created in influence to how people think o Believed thinking influences actions o As the brain develops and experiences expand: § Sensorimotor: A not B error, experimenter hides attractive toy within baby’s reach. Baby will look for and find the toy many times. Then experimenter removes toy from original place to a new one. Baby will continue to search for toy in A even though they saw experimenter move it to B. (12 months and younger may fall for this)** § Preoperational: Children are egocentric. They think that what they want, you want. Understand, represent, and picture objects in their mind. Think more symbolically. Lack of conservation: say that liquid is a different volume when poured into tall, narrow glass into short, wide cup. § Concrete Operational: More logical reasoning. No longer entirely egocentric. Can understand that people think differently than them. Organize objects into hierarchies. Thinking is limited to what they can perceive physically. § Formal Operational: Able to answer “what if” questions. They don’t apply to real world circumstances, but can answer with logic Clicker Q: At what age do most children stop making the A not B error? 12 months • Assimilation: Confusing zebra and horse • Accommodation: learn through maybe correction, old ideas are modified. Requires more effort and produces the most intellectual growth Clicker Q: A child learns that his father is called Daddy. Much to his mother’s embarrassment he begins to call all men Daddy. This is a demonstration of assimilation. Clicker Q: After being repeatedly told by his mother that the mailman, electrician and gardener are not Daddy, the child learns that not all men are not daddy, the child learns that not all men are daddy, only his father is daddy. This is a demonstration of: Accommodation • Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory o Scaffolding: guided through task that is slightly more difficult but has assistance. Counting from 1-‐10 with a child will not help because they know how to do so. 1-‐ 100 is something they absolutely can’t do. 11-‐20 is something they can do with help. § ZPD: learning to count from 11-‐20. Spending time in ZPD helps with development ClickerQ: According to Vygotsky’s theory, trying to teach a child who cannot identify letters, how to read words would be: Outside of their zone of proximal development • Information Processing Theory o Attention mechanisms, memory, long-‐term memory (all necessary for how we receive and retain information) ClickerQ: Which of the following is NOT a stage theory?: Information Processing Theory and Bandura’s Social Learning Theory • Humanism and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o Application in different cultures is called into question • Evolutionary Developmental Psychology o Answers questions like why do children respond to gender specific toys? Why do parents live past the time when children need to depend on them? 2 3
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