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English Grammar Week 3 Notes

by: Courteney Feld

English Grammar Week 3 Notes E360K

Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Foreign Language > E360K > English Grammar Week 3 Notes
Courteney Feld
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

My personal notes from class and textbook :)
English Grammar
Dr. L Hinrichs
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courteney Feld on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to E360K at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. L Hinrichs in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see English Grammar in Foreign Language at University of Texas at Austin.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Week 3 Class and Reading Notes  Complements- noun/adjective phrase which describes subject  Ex: To be, is  Your room is big. I am Awesome.  These sentences have a subject-verb complement  Subject vs. predicate- verb + object or verb + complement  “head” of phrase  Simple vs. compound clause- 1 subject and predicate vs. 2 linked by coordinators (and/but)  Preterit- past tense vs. past time  Present perfect- I walked vs. I have walked; differ not in level of time, but aspect  Inflection- tenses, idea of time period  Agreement- singular/plural  Finite vs. non-finite- she brings vs. to bring (non-finite is more abstract and doesn’t agree with the subject)  Subjunctive- we want that she bring food  Auxiliary vs. Lexical verbs- lexical stand by themselves, auxiliaries are helper verbs with other verbs  Modal auxiliary- can do something  Be, have, do verbs can be either lexical or auxiliary (ex: I have dogs vs. I have to go) Book Chapters 1-4 Chapter 1:  Language varieties = dialects  Pronunciation = accent  Formal vs. informal – With whom she worked vs. who she worked with  Both considered standard dialect  % represents standard  ! represents non-standard  Syntax- how words are assembled into sentences  Morphology- internal fom of words (ex: un-open-ed)  Semantics- meaning  General level- identify what’s common in forms that qualify as past tense in different languages  Language-particular level- how to decide whether a given form is past tense  Imperative (directive)- commands, offers, requests, invitations, advice, instructions  Interrogative- questions  Declaratives- statements Chapter 2:  Most straightforward sentences have 1 clause, or 2 or more clauses joined by a coordinator  Head of phrase defines what kind of phrase it is  Other elements = dependents  Phrase- more than one word  Basic clause- subject and predicate (action)  Subject = function, NP- category (class of expressions grammatically alike)  Lexeme- “lex” = dictionary (ex: cats and cat)  Difference in matter of inflection  Inflection forms- singular and plural  Determinative- the, some, all  Verb determines the situation  Attributive adjective- hot soup  Predicative adjective- the soup is hot  Gradable- old (plain), older (comparative), oldest (superlative)  The = definite; a = indefinite  Prepositions- space and time  Subordinator- whether, if, that  Phrase = head + dependents  Canonical clauses- basic/elementary  Polarity- positive vs negative clauses  Bases- can stand alone as words  Affixes- cannot stand alone (en, ly, un) Chapter 3:  Verbs = variable lexemes- different forms in different contexts  Paradigm- set of inflectional forms of a variable lexeme  Shape- spelling or pronunciation  Preterit- marked past tense  Lexical base- starting point for rules of morphology- how various inflectional forms derived  Gerund- similar to noun  Participle- similar to adjective  Perfective- wrote vs. imperfective- was writing Chapter 4:  Case- separates subject from non-subject  Nominative- I, he, she, we, they  Accusative- me, him, her, us, them  Object- Ed told the manager  Adjunct- Ed arrived last week  Transivity- number of objects in clause  Monotransitive- 1 object  Ditransitive- 2 objects  Adjunct- modifiers and supplements Class Notes:  TAM- tense, mood, aspect  Be:  Am  Is  Are  Were  Was  Been  Being  Be  (Will be)  Agreement- verb changes shape to fit noun in both person and number  Person (I, he, she, it, we, you, they…)  Number  Auxiliary verbs: modals and non-modals  Modals: an, may, should, out, must  Non-modals: be, have, do  Ex: have as auxiliary- have driven; have as lexical- I have a dog  Quasi modals- have to, need to, got to  I have got to = auxiliary have  Mood vs. modality- mood: expressed; modality: grammar used to express  Tense vs. time- time = events, tense = grammatical construction to express these events  Moods- must/may/should  Epistemic- suggestions; uncertainty  Deontic- direct, expresses rights and obligations, permission  Dynamic- properties or dispositions formed by modals  Epistemic, deontic, dynamic- the 3 modalities  She can drive:  Deontic- she’s allowed to drive  Epistemic- she’s able to drive  Finite clause- verb agrees with subject  Non-finite clause- verb is participle or infinitive  Ex: Non-finite- everyone arrested at the demonstration went to jail  Finite- I want that he complete the race  Non-finite- having been through a similar experience, I sympathize.


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