English Grammar Week 3 Notes
English Grammar Week 3 Notes E360K
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courteney Feld on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to E360K at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. L Hinrichs in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see English Grammar in Foreign Language at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Week 3 Class and Reading Notes Complements- noun/adjective phrase which describes subject Ex: To be, is Your room is big. I am Awesome. These sentences have a subject-verb complement Subject vs. predicate- verb + object or verb + complement “head” of phrase Simple vs. compound clause- 1 subject and predicate vs. 2 linked by coordinators (and/but) Preterit- past tense vs. past time Present perfect- I walked vs. I have walked; differ not in level of time, but aspect Inflection- tenses, idea of time period Agreement- singular/plural Finite vs. non-finite- she brings vs. to bring (non-finite is more abstract and doesn’t agree with the subject) Subjunctive- we want that she bring food Auxiliary vs. Lexical verbs- lexical stand by themselves, auxiliaries are helper verbs with other verbs Modal auxiliary- can do something Be, have, do verbs can be either lexical or auxiliary (ex: I have dogs vs. I have to go) Book Chapters 1-4 Chapter 1: Language varieties = dialects Pronunciation = accent Formal vs. informal – With whom she worked vs. who she worked with Both considered standard dialect % represents standard ! represents non-standard Syntax- how words are assembled into sentences Morphology- internal fom of words (ex: un-open-ed) Semantics- meaning General level- identify what’s common in forms that qualify as past tense in different languages Language-particular level- how to decide whether a given form is past tense Imperative (directive)- commands, offers, requests, invitations, advice, instructions Interrogative- questions Declaratives- statements Chapter 2: Most straightforward sentences have 1 clause, or 2 or more clauses joined by a coordinator Head of phrase defines what kind of phrase it is Other elements = dependents Phrase- more than one word Basic clause- subject and predicate (action) Subject = function, NP- category (class of expressions grammatically alike) Lexeme- “lex” = dictionary (ex: cats and cat) Difference in matter of inflection Inflection forms- singular and plural Determinative- the, some, all Verb determines the situation Attributive adjective- hot soup Predicative adjective- the soup is hot Gradable- old (plain), older (comparative), oldest (superlative) The = definite; a = indefinite Prepositions- space and time Subordinator- whether, if, that Phrase = head + dependents Canonical clauses- basic/elementary Polarity- positive vs negative clauses Bases- can stand alone as words Affixes- cannot stand alone (en, ly, un) Chapter 3: Verbs = variable lexemes- different forms in different contexts Paradigm- set of inflectional forms of a variable lexeme Shape- spelling or pronunciation Preterit- marked past tense Lexical base- starting point for rules of morphology- how various inflectional forms derived Gerund- similar to noun Participle- similar to adjective Perfective- wrote vs. imperfective- was writing Chapter 4: Case- separates subject from non-subject Nominative- I, he, she, we, they Accusative- me, him, her, us, them Object- Ed told the manager Adjunct- Ed arrived last week Transivity- number of objects in clause Monotransitive- 1 object Ditransitive- 2 objects Adjunct- modifiers and supplements Class Notes: TAM- tense, mood, aspect Be: Am Is Are Were Was Been Being Be (Will be) Agreement- verb changes shape to fit noun in both person and number Person (I, he, she, it, we, you, they…) Number Auxiliary verbs: modals and non-modals Modals: an, may, should, out, must Non-modals: be, have, do Ex: have as auxiliary- have driven; have as lexical- I have a dog Quasi modals- have to, need to, got to I have got to = auxiliary have Mood vs. modality- mood: expressed; modality: grammar used to express Tense vs. time- time = events, tense = grammatical construction to express these events Moods- must/may/should Epistemic- suggestions; uncertainty Deontic- direct, expresses rights and obligations, permission Dynamic- properties or dispositions formed by modals Epistemic, deontic, dynamic- the 3 modalities She can drive: Deontic- she’s allowed to drive Epistemic- she’s able to drive Finite clause- verb agrees with subject Non-finite clause- verb is participle or infinitive Ex: Non-finite- everyone arrested at the demonstration went to jail Finite- I want that he complete the race Non-finite- having been through a similar experience, I sympathize.
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