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Psych 361, Week 3 & 4

by: BoseAmosun

Psych 361, Week 3 & 4 Psych 361

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Chapter 2: Conception to Birth Part I: Conception and Genetics Part II: From Zygote to Newborn
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Carrie Cuttler
Class Notes
Psychology 361, Psych 361, developmental psychology, Cuttler, Conception, birth, Zygote
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Psychology  361  -­‐  1.25.16   •   Naturalistic  Observation  –  popular  method  in  anthropology  (Jane  Goodall  researched   chimpanzees  in  natural  setting)  and  sociology  (NATURAL  SETTING)   o   This  is  a  qualitative  observation,  very  in  depth  and  conclusions  are  based  on   themes  and  observations   o   Piaget  used  this  type  of  observations,  diary  descriptions  were  used  to  chart   findings   •   Structured  Observation  –  observes  one  or  more  specific  behaviors   o   This  is  quantitative,  small  number  of  specific  behavior,  this  allows  researchers  to   quantify  what  they  are  studying  because  it  is  a  smaller  group  to  observe   o   Social  behavior  of  young  children,  sampled  child’s  social  behavior  every  15   seconds  to  see  what  they  are  doing.  Coded  into  1  of  5  categories   Clicker  Q:  Which  of  the  following  is  a  true  statement  about  naturalistic  and  structured   observation?  Naturalistic  observation  is  typically  done  in  a  natural  setting  and  structured   observation  is  typically  more  quantitative.   •   The  Survey  Method   o   Usually  fast  and  inexpensive  which  allows  researchers  to  observe  a  large  amount   of  people     o   People  can  underreport  or  try  to  make  themselves  look  good  for  surveys  (socially   desirable  responding),  this  can  cause  error  but  researchers  have  come  up  with   tricks  to  try  to  eliminate  that  error   o   Researchers  must  be  careful  about  the  wording  of  the  survey.  Avoid  leading   questions  that  lead  people  to  a  certain  answer  “precious  tax  dollars”  vs.  “tax   dollars”   •   Correlational  Method   o   Correlation  does  not  imply  causation   o   Correlation  coefficient  describes  strength  and  relationship  of  the  two  variables   studied   §   Correlation  is  (+)  (eg.  Increase  or  decrease  in  both)   §   (-­‐)  correlation  (increasing  in  one,  decrease  in  another…  eg.  Increased   exercise,  decrease  in  cholesterol  levels)   §   perfectly  correlated,  1  correlation.  Not  correlated  at  all,  0  correlation.   §   Closer  to  0,  the  weaker  the  correlation,  further  away  from  0,  it  is  stronger   •   The  Experimental  Method   o   Independent  Variable  (IV)  –  variable  is  manipulated  (cause)   o   Dependent  Variable  (DV)  –  variable  is  measured  (effect)   o   Experimental  control  –  researcher  controls  outside  variables  to  make  sure  there   are  no  differences  across  the  groups     o   Quazi  experiment  –  ADHD  is  the  IV  (can’t  manipulate  that)  but  looking  at  two   groups     o   Experiment  –  researcher  manipulated  diet  to  create  two  groups   o   Correlational  –  not  forming  groups,  just  looking  at  a  range  and  comparing   attention   •   The  Habituation  Method   o   Used  to  study  infants  who  cannot  read,  write  or  talk   o   Used  to  determine  whether  they  can  tell  two  things  apart     Clicker  Q:  If  an  infant  can  distinguish  between  two  objects  then  a  researcher  using  the   habituation  method  should  see  that  the  infant:  Shows  renewed  interest  when  the  new   object  is  presented   •   Cross-­‐Sectional   o   Inexpensive  and  get  results  immediately   o   COHORT  effects  may  get  in  the  way  of  this  study   •   Longitudinal  Design   o   Follows  people  as  they  get  older,  testing  them  as  they  age   o   Major  problems:  time  consuming,  COHORT  IS  A  PROBLEM   o   Attrition  is  a  problem  with  longitudinal  studies  (this  is  mortality  in  the  sense  that   participants  drop  out  of  the  study)   •   Cross-­‐Sequential  Design   o   Combination  of  cross-­‐sectional  and  longitudinal  methods   o   Individuals  of  different  ages  (Cross-­‐sectional)   o   Same  individuals  are  observed  at  different  points  in  time  (Longitudinal)   o   Cohorts  are  good  in  this  aspect   2   ClickerQ:  For  which  of  the  following  three  methods,  can  cohort  effects  be  a  problem?   Longitudinal  and  Cross-­‐Sectional     3   Psychology  361  -­‐  1.27.16   •   Ethics  (requirements  that  must  be  fulfilled  to  perform  an  ethical   observation/experiment)   o   Must  have  informed  consent   §   Unless  the  child  is  an  infant   o   Participants  must  be  protected  from  harm  (must  be  aware  of  risks)   o   Participants’  confidentiality  must  be  protected   o   Fabricating  data,  falsifying  data  and  plagiarism  are  unethical  and  can  result  in   serious  sanctions   Conception  to  Birth  (Chapter  2)   •   Conception     o   The  woman  relsease  an  ovum  (egg)  from  one  of  her  ovaries   o   If  not  fertilized,  it  disintegrates  and  is  shed  during  menstruation   •   The  Zygote   o   Sperm  and  ovum  (together  called  gametes)  combine  to  form  zygote   o   Each  gamete  has  23  UNPAIRED  chromosomes  which  become  the  full  set  (23   pairs)  when  it  becomes  a  zygote   •   Genetics   o   Chromosomes  composed  of  DNA   o   Genotype:  collection  of  gene  (genetic  potential)   o   Phenotype:  observable  characteristics  (influenced  by  genes  and  environmental   factors)   •   Sex  Determination   o   22  pairs  of  chromosomes  contain  all  the  information.  The  sex  is  determined  by   the  23  pair  (sex  chromosome)   o   X  chromosome  is  large  and  Y  chromosome  is  quite  small   o   Y  contains  the  SRY  gene.  This  determines  the  sex  of  the  zygote     o   If  it  is  male,  release  of  androgens  happens   o   If  androgens  are  not  secreted,  female  genitals  develop  by  default   ClickerQ:  Which  of  the  following  statements  about  the  SRY  gene  is  NOT  true?  It  is  located  on   the  X  chromosome     •   TWINS   o   Monozygotic  Twins  –  zygote  is  split  apart.  Identical  genotypes,  identical  twins   o   Dizygotic  Twins  –  two  separate  ova  are  fertilized  by  two  separate  sperm.  Two   separate  zygotes,  two  different  genotypes,  fraternal  twins.     2   Psychology  361  –  1.29.16   -­‐   About  one  week  after  conception  the  outer  cells  implant  into  the  uterine  wall  and  begin   to  create  the  placenta,  while  the  inner  cells  form  a  nucleus  that  will  become  the   umbilical  cord,  amnion  and  embryo.     -­‐   The  placenta  is  an  organ  that  allows  oxygen,  nutrients  and  other  substances  to  be   transferred  between  the  mother’s  and  baby’s  blood.     -­‐   The  placenta  is  an  organ.     -­‐   There  is  an  increase  in  the  mother’s  metabolism  rate.     -­‐   The  placenta  does  not  allow  the  mother’s  and  baby’s  blood  to  mix.  It  only  comes  close   together.     -­‐   If  the  cell  splits  up  again  then  the  woman  ends  up  with  monozygotic  twins.     -­‐   About  60%  of  zygotes  do  not  grow  or  implant  properly  and  do  not  survive  this  germinal   period,  which  most  women  are  not  even  aware  of  losing  the  zygote  because  they  are   not  aware  they  are  pregnant.     -­‐   Amniotic  sac  is  what  comes  out  as  “water  breaking”   -­‐   The  cells  that  become  the  embryos  body  form  and  specialize  at  this  time.       The  embryonic  stage     -­‐   The  3  week  after  conception  through  the  eighth  week   -­‐   Week  3-­‐  the  neural  tube  develops.     -­‐   Week  6-­‐  the  brain  begins  to  produce  patterns  of  electrical  activity  (during  week  6  this  is   when  the  woman  can  feel  the  baby)     -­‐   Of  those  40%  who  do  survive  the  germinal  stage,  can  not  survive  this  embryonic  stage   and  can  result  in  a  miscarriage  (those  that  do  not  survive  this  stage  have  genetic   abnormalities)   -­‐   Week7-­‐  the  bone  begins  to  harden  and  the  muscles  begin  to  mature.     -­‐   Week  8-­‐  the  liver  and  spleen  begin  to  function  along  with  the  urinary  and  digestive   systems     -­‐   By  the  end  of  the  8  week  the  embryo  weights  about  1g  and  is  about  1  inch.     -­‐   Development  shows  a  cephalocaudal  (from  head  to  body  to  toe)  and  proximodistal   (from  the  center  of  the  body  to  the  extremities)  pattern.       -­‐   In  males,  androgens  begins  to  produce  and  cause  male  genitalia  to  develop.       Survival     ClickerQ:  Approx.  60%  of  zygotes  do  not  survive  through  the  germinal  stage.     .   ClickerQ:  By  about  3  months  the  embryo  weighs  about  3  ounces  and  is  about  3  inches  long -­‐   Only  about  5%  of  fetuses  (those  who  survive  the  embryonic  stage)  do  not  survive   through  the  fetal  stage.       Teratogens     -­‐   Exposure  to  chicken  pox  may  impair  brain  development     -­‐   Exposure  to  German  measles-­‐  can  result  in  fetus  blindness  and  can  cause  the  death  of   an  embryo.     -­‐   Illicit  drugs  such  as  heroine  can  cause  premature  labor  and  the  infant  will  be  born   addicted  to  heroine.     -­‐   Inhalers-­‐  can  cause  abnormally  small  heads,  crossed  eyes,  brain  damage.     -­‐   High  doses  of  vitamin  A/penicillin-­‐  very  severe  birth  defects  (thalidomide)   -­‐   PCB’s-­‐  miscarriages,  preterm  Iabor,  brain  damage.  Pregnant  women  are  advised  to  limit   their  consumption  of  fish.     -­‐   Radiation-­‐  massive  exposure  can  cause  abnormally  small  heads  and  intellectual   disabilities.     -­‐   High  stress  levels-­‐  causes  cleft  palate,  preterm  labor,  miscarriages.       Timing:  exposure  to  teratogen  carries  the  greatest  risk  during  8  weeks.       -­‐   Some  teratogens  have  a  threshold,  after  which  they  start  to  become  damaging-­‐  dose   and  frequency  of  exposure  can  matter.   -­‐   Sex  matters!  Male  fetuses  only  have  one  X  chromosome  and  are  more  vulnerable  to   teratogens.     -­‐   The  XX  chromosome  have  more  protection.     -­‐   The  effects  of  the  teratogens  can  have  different  effects  depending  on  the  stage  of   exposure.  Teratogens  are  likely  to  influence  whatever  is  developing  at  the  time  of   exposure.           2   Psychology  361  –  2.1.16   •   Alcohol   o   Fetal  Alcohol  Syndrome  (FAS):  drinking  especially  during  beginning  stages  of   pregnancy  (germinal  stage)   §   A  cluster  of  birth  defects     §   Abnormal  facial  characteristics  (shorter  eyes,  thin  upper  lip,  lack  of   indentation  from  nose  to  lip)   §   smaller  than  average,  smaller  brains,  hearing  loss,  heart  defects   •   Fetal  Alcohol  Effects  (FAE):  during  fetal  stage   o   Drinking  later  in  pregnancy  alcohol  is  a  behavioral  teratogen   o   Hyperactivity,  poor  concentration,  slow  learning   o   Typically  don’t  have  the  abnormal  physical  characteristics     §   Mothers  who  smoke  alcohol  and  smoke  cigarettes  usually  have  children   with  FAE   •   Labor  and  Delivery   o   Stage  1:  CERVIX  DIALATION!  Gets  thinner  and  shorter  and  contractions  are  far   apart   §   Active  phase  (active  labor):  Begins  with  cervix  dilated  3-­‐4cm  ending  at   8cm   §   Transition  stage:  more  painful  than  a  period  cramp  dilated  to  10cm.  Can   last  from  3-­‐20  hours   §   Most  of  the  labor  is  Stage  1   o   Stage  2:  Once  dilated  to  10cm,  mother  feels  urge  to  push   §   Baby’s  head  moves  past  stretched  cervix  into  birth  canal  then  pops  out!     §   Typically  takes  less  than  an  hour   o   Stage  3:  Placenta  arrives!  Baby  is  out  J     •   Birth  Choices  –  Location   o   Hospital:  most  North  American  women  make  this  choice  under  supervision  of   doctors/nurses   o   Birthing  center:  resembles  a  home  (may  be  located  in  a  hospital  where  doctor   assists  or  midwifery  center  where  midwife  assists)   o   Home:  planned  home  births   §   Advantage  is  that  woman  is  very  comfortable   §   Lower  rates  of  interventions  and  complications  than  hospital  births  (may   be  because  women  with  low-­‐risk  pregnancies  are  allowed  the  option  of   home  births  anyway;  women  with  complications  from  the  start  of   pregnancy  will  need  to  be  under  supervision  of  doctor  in  hospital)   •   Birth  Choices  -­‐  Personnel     o   Doctor:  most  North  American  women  make  this  choice   o   Midwife:  more  common  in  Europe   §   Less  likely  to  use  medical  interventions  (intervention  meaning  something   to  get  the  baby  out  faster  and  safely:  epidural,  C-­‐section,  etc.)   §   Just  as  skilled  as  doctors,  focused  exclusively  on  birth     o   Doula:  more  of  an  emotional  and  practical  supporter  in  addition  to  midwife  or   doctor   §   Not  there  for  medical  support  (give  massages,  tend  to  your  needs,  give   partner  advice,  talk  to  you,  come  after  giving  birth  to  do  dishes,  clean  and   help  with  YOU  with  breast-­‐feeding)   •   Birth  choices  –  Drugs     o   Natural  childbirth:  no  drugs,  no  interventions   §   Required  by  most  midwives     o   These  drugs  include:   §   Sedatives:  reduce  anxiety   §   Epidural:  local  anesthesia  injected  into  spine  that  numbs  body  from  waist   down   •   decreases  pain  and  contractions     •   decreases  readiness  of  newborns  to  suck   §   Pitocin:  synthetic  version  of  oxytocin   •   Induces  and  strengthens  contractions   •   Increases  pain  which  increases  chance  of  epidural  to  deal  with   pain   •   Increases  chances  of  needing  a  C-­‐section   2   §   General  anesthesia:  renders  woman  unconscious   •   Can  be  used  for  C-­‐sections   •   Birth  Choices  –  Interventions  (35%  of  births  are  C-­‐section  just  because)   o   C-­‐section:  medically  indicated  about  15%  (need  based)  of  births  because  of:       §   Breach  babies  (baby  is  going  to  come  out  feet  first)   §   Multiples  (twins,  triplets,  etc.)   §   Other  complications  (babies  over  9-­‐10lbs,  etc.)   o   Forceps  –  surgical  instrument  like  tongs  used  to  pull  the  baby  out  of  the  mother   o   Vacuum  –  surgical  instrument  used  to  suck  the  baby  out   3  


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