Psych 361, Week 3 & 4
Psych 361, Week 3 & 4 Psych 361
Popular in Developmental Psychology
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Psychology 361 -‐ 1.25.16 • Naturalistic Observation – popular method in anthropology (Jane Goodall researched chimpanzees in natural setting) and sociology (NATURAL SETTING) o This is a qualitative observation, very in depth and conclusions are based on themes and observations o Piaget used this type of observations, diary descriptions were used to chart findings • Structured Observation – observes one or more specific behaviors o This is quantitative, small number of specific behavior, this allows researchers to quantify what they are studying because it is a smaller group to observe o Social behavior of young children, sampled child’s social behavior every 15 seconds to see what they are doing. Coded into 1 of 5 categories Clicker Q: Which of the following is a true statement about naturalistic and structured observation? Naturalistic observation is typically done in a natural setting and structured observation is typically more quantitative. • The Survey Method o Usually fast and inexpensive which allows researchers to observe a large amount of people o People can underreport or try to make themselves look good for surveys (socially desirable responding), this can cause error but researchers have come up with tricks to try to eliminate that error o Researchers must be careful about the wording of the survey. Avoid leading questions that lead people to a certain answer “precious tax dollars” vs. “tax dollars” • Correlational Method o Correlation does not imply causation o Correlation coefficient describes strength and relationship of the two variables studied § Correlation is (+) (eg. Increase or decrease in both) § (-‐) correlation (increasing in one, decrease in another… eg. Increased exercise, decrease in cholesterol levels) § perfectly correlated, 1 correlation. Not correlated at all, 0 correlation. § Closer to 0, the weaker the correlation, further away from 0, it is stronger • The Experimental Method o Independent Variable (IV) – variable is manipulated (cause) o Dependent Variable (DV) – variable is measured (effect) o Experimental control – researcher controls outside variables to make sure there are no differences across the groups o Quazi experiment – ADHD is the IV (can’t manipulate that) but looking at two groups o Experiment – researcher manipulated diet to create two groups o Correlational – not forming groups, just looking at a range and comparing attention • The Habituation Method o Used to study infants who cannot read, write or talk o Used to determine whether they can tell two things apart Clicker Q: If an infant can distinguish between two objects then a researcher using the habituation method should see that the infant: Shows renewed interest when the new object is presented • Cross-‐Sectional o Inexpensive and get results immediately o COHORT effects may get in the way of this study • Longitudinal Design o Follows people as they get older, testing them as they age o Major problems: time consuming, COHORT IS A PROBLEM o Attrition is a problem with longitudinal studies (this is mortality in the sense that participants drop out of the study) • Cross-‐Sequential Design o Combination of cross-‐sectional and longitudinal methods o Individuals of different ages (Cross-‐sectional) o Same individuals are observed at different points in time (Longitudinal) o Cohorts are good in this aspect 2 ClickerQ: For which of the following three methods, can cohort effects be a problem? Longitudinal and Cross-‐Sectional 3 Psychology 361 -‐ 1.27.16 • Ethics (requirements that must be fulfilled to perform an ethical observation/experiment) o Must have informed consent § Unless the child is an infant o Participants must be protected from harm (must be aware of risks) o Participants’ confidentiality must be protected o Fabricating data, falsifying data and plagiarism are unethical and can result in serious sanctions Conception to Birth (Chapter 2) • Conception o The woman relsease an ovum (egg) from one of her ovaries o If not fertilized, it disintegrates and is shed during menstruation • The Zygote o Sperm and ovum (together called gametes) combine to form zygote o Each gamete has 23 UNPAIRED chromosomes which become the full set (23 pairs) when it becomes a zygote • Genetics o Chromosomes composed of DNA o Genotype: collection of gene (genetic potential) o Phenotype: observable characteristics (influenced by genes and environmental factors) • Sex Determination o 22 pairs of chromosomes contain all the information. The sex is determined by the 23 pair (sex chromosome) o X chromosome is large and Y chromosome is quite small o Y contains the SRY gene. This determines the sex of the zygote o If it is male, release of androgens happens o If androgens are not secreted, female genitals develop by default ClickerQ: Which of the following statements about the SRY gene is NOT true? It is located on the X chromosome • TWINS o Monozygotic Twins – zygote is split apart. Identical genotypes, identical twins o Dizygotic Twins – two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm. Two separate zygotes, two different genotypes, fraternal twins. 2 Psychology 361 – 1.29.16 -‐ About one week after conception the outer cells implant into the uterine wall and begin to create the placenta, while the inner cells form a nucleus that will become the umbilical cord, amnion and embryo. -‐ The placenta is an organ that allows oxygen, nutrients and other substances to be transferred between the mother’s and baby’s blood. -‐ The placenta is an organ. -‐ There is an increase in the mother’s metabolism rate. -‐ The placenta does not allow the mother’s and baby’s blood to mix. It only comes close together. -‐ If the cell splits up again then the woman ends up with monozygotic twins. -‐ About 60% of zygotes do not grow or implant properly and do not survive this germinal period, which most women are not even aware of losing the zygote because they are not aware they are pregnant. -‐ Amniotic sac is what comes out as “water breaking” -‐ The cells that become the embryos body form and specialize at this time. The embryonic stage -‐ The 3 week after conception through the eighth week -‐ Week 3-‐ the neural tube develops. -‐ Week 6-‐ the brain begins to produce patterns of electrical activity (during week 6 this is when the woman can feel the baby) -‐ Of those 40% who do survive the germinal stage, can not survive this embryonic stage and can result in a miscarriage (those that do not survive this stage have genetic abnormalities) -‐ Week7-‐ the bone begins to harden and the muscles begin to mature. -‐ Week 8-‐ the liver and spleen begin to function along with the urinary and digestive systems -‐ By the end of the 8 week the embryo weights about 1g and is about 1 inch. -‐ Development shows a cephalocaudal (from head to body to toe) and proximodistal (from the center of the body to the extremities) pattern. -‐ In males, androgens begins to produce and cause male genitalia to develop. Survival ClickerQ: Approx. 60% of zygotes do not survive through the germinal stage. . ClickerQ: By about 3 months the embryo weighs about 3 ounces and is about 3 inches long -‐ Only about 5% of fetuses (those who survive the embryonic stage) do not survive through the fetal stage. Teratogens -‐ Exposure to chicken pox may impair brain development -‐ Exposure to German measles-‐ can result in fetus blindness and can cause the death of an embryo. -‐ Illicit drugs such as heroine can cause premature labor and the infant will be born addicted to heroine. -‐ Inhalers-‐ can cause abnormally small heads, crossed eyes, brain damage. -‐ High doses of vitamin A/penicillin-‐ very severe birth defects (thalidomide) -‐ PCB’s-‐ miscarriages, preterm Iabor, brain damage. Pregnant women are advised to limit their consumption of fish. -‐ Radiation-‐ massive exposure can cause abnormally small heads and intellectual disabilities. -‐ High stress levels-‐ causes cleft palate, preterm labor, miscarriages. Timing: exposure to teratogen carries the greatest risk during 8 weeks. -‐ Some teratogens have a threshold, after which they start to become damaging-‐ dose and frequency of exposure can matter. -‐ Sex matters! Male fetuses only have one X chromosome and are more vulnerable to teratogens. -‐ The XX chromosome have more protection. -‐ The effects of the teratogens can have different effects depending on the stage of exposure. Teratogens are likely to influence whatever is developing at the time of exposure. 2 Psychology 361 – 2.1.16 • Alcohol o Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): drinking especially during beginning stages of pregnancy (germinal stage) § A cluster of birth defects § Abnormal facial characteristics (shorter eyes, thin upper lip, lack of indentation from nose to lip) § smaller than average, smaller brains, hearing loss, heart defects • Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE): during fetal stage o Drinking later in pregnancy alcohol is a behavioral teratogen o Hyperactivity, poor concentration, slow learning o Typically don’t have the abnormal physical characteristics § Mothers who smoke alcohol and smoke cigarettes usually have children with FAE • Labor and Delivery o Stage 1: CERVIX DIALATION! Gets thinner and shorter and contractions are far apart § Active phase (active labor): Begins with cervix dilated 3-‐4cm ending at 8cm § Transition stage: more painful than a period cramp dilated to 10cm. Can last from 3-‐20 hours § Most of the labor is Stage 1 o Stage 2: Once dilated to 10cm, mother feels urge to push § Baby’s head moves past stretched cervix into birth canal then pops out! § Typically takes less than an hour o Stage 3: Placenta arrives! Baby is out J • Birth Choices – Location o Hospital: most North American women make this choice under supervision of doctors/nurses o Birthing center: resembles a home (may be located in a hospital where doctor assists or midwifery center where midwife assists) o Home: planned home births § Advantage is that woman is very comfortable § Lower rates of interventions and complications than hospital births (may be because women with low-‐risk pregnancies are allowed the option of home births anyway; women with complications from the start of pregnancy will need to be under supervision of doctor in hospital) • Birth Choices -‐ Personnel o Doctor: most North American women make this choice o Midwife: more common in Europe § Less likely to use medical interventions (intervention meaning something to get the baby out faster and safely: epidural, C-‐section, etc.) § Just as skilled as doctors, focused exclusively on birth o Doula: more of an emotional and practical supporter in addition to midwife or doctor § Not there for medical support (give massages, tend to your needs, give partner advice, talk to you, come after giving birth to do dishes, clean and help with YOU with breast-‐feeding) • Birth choices – Drugs o Natural childbirth: no drugs, no interventions § Required by most midwives o These drugs include: § Sedatives: reduce anxiety § Epidural: local anesthesia injected into spine that numbs body from waist down • decreases pain and contractions • decreases readiness of newborns to suck § Pitocin: synthetic version of oxytocin • Induces and strengthens contractions • Increases pain which increases chance of epidural to deal with pain • Increases chances of needing a C-‐section 2 § General anesthesia: renders woman unconscious • Can be used for C-‐sections • Birth Choices – Interventions (35% of births are C-‐section just because) o C-‐section: medically indicated about 15% (need based) of births because of: § Breach babies (baby is going to come out feet first) § Multiples (twins, triplets, etc.) § Other complications (babies over 9-‐10lbs, etc.) o Forceps – surgical instrument like tongs used to pull the baby out of the mother o Vacuum – surgical instrument used to suck the baby out 3
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