Intro to Psychology Weeks 2 and 3 Notes
Intro to Psychology Weeks 2 and 3 Notes PSY301
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courteney Feld on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY301 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Stephen Bright in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Notes Weeks 2 and 3 Class Notes: Confounding- ex: increase in ice cream consumption and increase in violence- link = temperature/heat (or ex: absences and good grades have a negative correlation) Operational definition- what exactly are the research variables we are working with Placebo- inert/non-active substance; sugar pill Repeat research study in different situations and in same one to give legitimacy to experiment Case study- hopes of revealing a universal principle Significance testing- size of difference in means of two or more groups (experimental and control) Null-hypothesis testing- there is no meaningful difference between groups Type I error- we believe there’s a meaningful effect when there’s not Type II error- thinking there’s no effect when there is Survey- self assessment data in random group False consensus effect- tendency to overestimate extent to which others share our beliefs and behaviors Naturalistic observation- without trying to manipulate or control the situation, just observing Scientific research vs. non-scientific Systematic approach Repeatable Objective (no biases) Interpretations based on data and observations rather than common sense Biological determinism- mind and personality = genes, brains, hormones (behavior determined by bio tendencies) Neurons consist of dendrites and axons and cell body Dendrites- short appendages that receive messages Axons- long appendages that send messages to other parts of body Electrical impulses- action potential Then, electrical messages chemical Individual differences- genetics and environment Darwin: Super abundance- more offspring than necessary Variation- differences in offspring Natural selection- characteristics that allow adaption which lead to reproduction Emotions manifested as personality traits Rapid orientation to events in environment Organization- coordination between muscles, respiratory, cardiovascular, facial expressions Adaptation- respond to pressures, survive, reproduce Evolutionary theory not testable- predictive and explanatory power, morality and consequences not a concern Brain uses 25 percent of energy from the body Chapter 3 Class Notes: Consciousness- levels of awareness of self and environment Cognitive neuroscience- study that attempts to link brain activity with mental processes (perception, thinking, memory, language) Continuum of consciousness- range of experiences from aware to unaware/unresponsive Altered states of consciousness Normal/waking awareness Daydreaming Sleeping Meditative states Drug induced states Other ? Dual processing- ability to process info (organize and interpret) on two levels 1. Conscious, internal processing: Parallel processing- normal multitasking Sequential- consecutive and ordered execution of processes one after another; requires focused attention Unconscious parallel- faster 2. Unconscious, automatic processing- without thought (ex: strong emotions, dreaming, doing things on autopilot) Selective attention- focusing of conscious awareness on a stimulus Cocktail party effect- able to attend to one out of many voices, but having been perceiving other stimuli all along without realizing; background noise concept Sleep- Arcadian rhythm