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CHp 11 Notes

by: Caleb Booker

CHp 11 Notes BIOL1006

Caleb Booker
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Plague Protectors Notes
Power of Plagues
Eric Villegas
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caleb Booker on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL1006 at University of Cincinnati taught by Eric Villegas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Power of Plagues in Biology at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Chp. 11: Plague Protectors I. Barbers, Bloodletting, and Antisepsis A. Ancient people were very serious about their cleanliness, but not for fighting disease. 1. They washed frequently because they believed this pleased their gods and prevented them from unleashing plagues on them. 2. Priests/monks were seen as physicians that drive out the evil (sickness) from people. 3. The word “hygiene” comes from the name of the Greek goddess, Hygeia. 4. People went to the temples of her father, Asclepios, for “cures” but the only cure that was found there was faith, not medicine. B. Hippocrates believed that there was a rational basis for disease. 1. His theory was based on an imbalance in the body of the 4 humors (fluids). Blood Phlegm Yellow Vile Black Vile 2. He stated that the body contained varying amounts of these fluids. 3. Illness defined as imbalance with these fluids due to poor diet, bad air, injuries, etc. 4. To cure the patient, bloodletting was prescribed to restore the balance in the fluids. C. Bloodletting was performed by slicing small cuts into one’s arm and letting it drip into a bowl. 1. Patient would then bleed until they fainted. 2. Then the barber-surgeons would apply a tourniquet to stop the bleeding and then put on a bandage. 3. George Washington died from bloodletting. He had a throat infection and the doctors used bloodletting to cure him. He was drained of 9 pints of blood in one sitting. II. Surgery, Disease, and Anesthesia A. Sursuta, Hindu surgeon, is on record to have washed his hand before surgery back in 600 BC B. Many surgeons believed pus was a part of healing process. 1. Wounds were encouraged C. Childbed Fever aka post-partum infection 1. Infection of the female reproductive organs 2. Resulted from unsanitary conditions, high mortality for both mother and child 3. High incidence in labor wards and hospital. D. Ignoz Semmelweisz believed in the importance of cleanliness; used chlorine for sterilization. 1. Horrified that teaching wards were not “sanitized” 2. Surgeons never washed hands and worked in a dirty lab. 3. High incidence of death after birth in wards.  3x higher than those in midwives ward. E. Joseph Lister is best known for developing antiseptics. 1. Anti- sepsis- stops “rotting” of wounds. 2. Carbolic Acid (phenol). 3. Prevents sepsis/infections.  Importance- exclude contamination such as in surgical rooms (instead of killing infections later) 4. Used Pasteur’s findings of microbes and bacterial contamination. 5. Used antiseptics to reduce infection during surgery. F. Before anesthesia, there was no pain killers. 1. Early practices: opium, distracting noise, distracting pain, hypnotism. 2. Laughing gas (Nitrous Oxide) decreased dental patient pain. 3. Ether  Painless surgery; become lethargic  First used in USA then Europe  “Sniffing parties” not pleasant smell  Very volatile/explosive 4. Cloroform  Same effects as ether, but not explosive  Clergy opposed use- “in sorrow thou shalt not bring forth children”…”And the Lord caused a deep sleep…”  Suffragists and even Queen Victoria, England used and promoted the use of chloroform in childbirth 5. III. Disease, Dyes, and Drugs A. Paul Ehrlich: founding father of chemotherapy 1. Worked with various dyes to “stain” cells and pathogens 2. Discovered mast cells (using one of his dyes) 3. Believed that specificity of dye compounds led can serve as specific drugs to kill pathogen 4. With Dr. Sahachiro Hata, they developed Salvarsan; used to treat syphilis. B. Alexander Fleming discovered the fungus that made penicillin by accident. 1. Petri dish covered with bacterial “lawn;” saw clear areas 2. Clear contained green mold 3. Howard Florey identified the active ingredient and named it penicillin.  Antibiotics- cleared several types of bacterial infections  First “broad spectrum” antibiotics  Very effective against syphilis and some other bacterial infections 4. Selman Waxman coined the phrase “anti-biotics”  Isolated antibiotic from another mold  Streptomycin- another “broad spectrum” antibiotic  Most effective against Tuberculosis.  Discovered over 15 more antibiotics, including neomycin IV. Microbes Fight Back A. How microbes find a way around antibiotics/chemotherapy 1. Develop mechanisms to bvecime impermeable to drugs so the drufgs wonmt get into cell 2. Mutate so more efficient in pumping out drugs so if drugs gets in, its pumped out rapidly 3. Develop enzymes or other cellular components that are altered =by


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