History 1020 Industrialization: Week 2 Notes
History 1020 Industrialization: Week 2 Notes HIST 1020
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allegra Lynch on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Industrialization, I: Changes in Manufacturing I. Agricultural Revolution: More gradual than a revolution; more of an evolution; changes in England first and is first strictly and English phenomenon; people began experimenting with the ways they farmed/ scientific revolution and enlightenment on farming; aristocrats now became involved with farming A. Increase in yields: same land same amount of land more crops; Jethro Tull; seeds are not wasted; learned to fertilize better by adding clay and lime to the soil; nitrogen producing crops B. Improvements in livestock: people began to exert control over breeding; used to just throw the animals in the commons; more protein in the European diet C. Effects: Demand; birth rate goes up death rate goes down increase in population increase in demand for goods; creates a labor force for the factories Jethro Tull: invented plow that cuts straighter lines and turns over the soil in a more systematic and thorough way; seeds are planted in a straight row and soil is more pulverized and the seeds get a chance to germinate and get air Turnip Townsend: English aristocrat who became such a turnip enthusiast that they nickname him Turnip Townsend; reason the herds are growing; convertible husbandry Convertible husbandry: Take something that’s been a pasture and convert into arable so you can grow on it; successful because that pasture has been extremely fertilized II. Industrial Revolution: bigger cities more jobs less work using your hands more factories A. Changes in technology: steam engine; James Watt; 1760 B. Improvements in iron industry: usually smelted using charcoal; energy problems in England by deforesting; alternative for charcoal is coal but you got pig iron which is hard to use because full of impurities and it is brittle; Henry Cort; makes iron industry in England explode and solves the energy crisis C. Improvements in textile industry: increase in power D. Ceramic industry: healthier way of doing it James Watt: perfected the steam engine Henry Cort: makes Puddling and rolling Puddling and rolling process: take molten iron that’s been smelted with coal and stir it; a lot of the carbon comes to the top because of this where it can be removed; then you roll it, squeezing out additional impurities; makes the iron usable Hargreaves: thread on a hundred spindles at a time Arkwright: water power III. Why was England first? A. Resources: they had the coal and the resources able to start a revolution B. Banking: Bank of England C. Constitutional factors: limited monarchy helped it grow economically D. Transportation: canals; able to move a lot of raw materials and finished products from point A to point D; new ways of moving heavier cargo Bank of England: National Bank to loan money and make it available to investors Parliament: representative institution that was centrally involved in all legislation; kings’ authority was limited; parliament reflected business interest; government policies were pro business and pro investment aka pro middle class Canals: England had a lot of water ways but they didn’t always connect the way they wanted to; Made canals to add rivers together and travel to more places IV. Spread of Industrialization Belgium first continental power Then Germany and Northern France then farther south From 1850-1880 Industrialization, II: Changes in Society Urbanization - Rapid growth of cities: Labor force moved from country to major towns and cities to work in the factories; most significant; half of England’s population has moved into cities which is not the traditional way - Environmental consequences: The Great Stink of London, 1858; No regulations so there is air pollution; more alcohol consumption; open wounds and poor health; suicide; pawn brokers - River Irwell, Manchester. The scum on the surface is the result of sewage; Factories dumped sewage into the rivers and waterways; The sewage of the cities also goes straight to waterways; not a lot of safe water - Housing problems: attics and cellars; rows of apartment homes- congestion; cold leaky not well built homes; outhouse for every apartment- no drains or anything, just a hole in the ground; waste collectors didn’t come enough so there would be overflow and children would play in the sewage; 2 ½ people per bed - Diseases: typhus (spread by contaminated water), typhoid fever (lice, mites, etc.), cholera (also spread by contaminated water), influenza; associated with filth; life expectancy very low (27-37 years old) in some place- better in the country side - Diet: More calories but was primarily bread, potatoes, beer, tea, lard/butter, bacon; no regular access to meat; minimal access to veggies and fruit; no stove just cooked over a heater; most families only owned one cooking utensil Conditions of Labor - Hours: not about task anymore; 16 hours a day 6 days a week- sometimes more - Inside the factory: overseer to see if you are on task; harsh discipline; industrial accidents because no safety precautions - Women and children: everyone in the family worked but split up- working where they can get work; was not guaranteed employment; very volatile; conditions especially bad with child labor and women; women and children payed less than men; also used in mining industry because they were smaller and could fit in places men couldn’t Changes in the social structure - Decline of the aristocracy: land doesn’t equal as much wealth anymore; decline in political and economic power - Rise of a proletariat: Working class in a more modern industrial sense; alienated because of the misery of their conditions and lives - Rise of the middle class and Victorian womanhood: bigger, wealthier, and more political power; Victorian named after Queen Victoria- middle class becomes dominant; values and ideas become dominant set of values in that society; woman take care o the children and house- stay at home mom and wife- new concept; woman worked until this time; status symbol showing they made it financially Queen Victoria and Albert- many kids; Albert died early and she was a widow; the ideal family Responses to the Problems of Industrial Society o Luddites o Unions o Governmental reforms
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