Class Note for PHIL 383 at UMass(7)
Class Note for PHIL 383 at UMass(7)
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Philosophy of Religion Problem of Evil Handout 2 The Argument 1 Evil exists 2 If God exists He would want to prevent all evil 3 If God exists He would be able to prevent all evil 4 If 3 and 4 then if God exists there would be no evil 5 Therefore if God exists there would be no evil 6 Therefore God does not exist The Free Will Defense 2 is false because there are good states of affairs that God cannot bring about without permitting the existence of evil Beingfree with respect to an action means you can perform or not perform an action causal or metaphysical laws do not determine what you will do Being signi cantlyfree means being free with respect to a morally significant action quotA world containing creatures who are significantly free is more valuable all else being equal than a world containing no free creatures at all p 3 28 God could only prevent free creatures from performing morally evil acts by also preventing them from performing morally good acts God cannot create some worlds He cannot create a world where I would freely perform action X in some circumstance C C obtains but I do not do X God can t make a world where I would freely eat waf es for breakfast but instead eat pancakes even though this isn t a logical contradiction Imagine it s true that ifyou pay me 20 I ll freely give you an A It s not Then God could not make a world where you give me 20 and I freely refuse the bribe Evil in this case bribery exists as a necessary consequence of creating creatures who are significantly free 1 Why did God make me such that I would accept bribes 2 How can we make sense of causation on this account if I m free to accept or not accept bribes How does this help with natural evil Maybe other supernatural creatures also have free will and they cause diseases earthquakes etc Rowe and the Evidential Argument from Evil Theist Response to Mackie We can describe a possibility where God exists yet evil also exists Example the free will response Plantinga demons etc An Atheist Reply Maybe there are some possibilities according to which both God and evils exist Those are all cases in which God permits evil to allow for a greater good or avoid a greater evil But that s not how things actually are Look around our evils don t seem to be of that sort NEE for oExcuseEvil an instance of intense human or animal suffering which God could have prevented without thereby losing some greater good or permitting some evil equally bad or worse Rowe s Evidential Argument from Evil restated and hopefully simplified R1 NEEs exist R2 If God exists then no NEEs exist R3 Therefore God does not exist Rowe even though we cannot deductively prove the truth of R1 we have rational grounds for believing it to be true quotIt seems quite unlikely that all the instances of intense suffering occurring daily in our world are intimately related to the occurrence of greater goods or the prevention of evils at least as bad Rowe 358 The Theist s Response The Direct Attack Provide evidence for the falsity of R1 The Indirect Attack The G E Moore Shift M1 God does exist M2 If God exists then no NEEs exist M3 Therefore no NEEs exist