Music History II Week 2 Notes
Music History II Week 2 Notes MUTH 25600
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by sconsidine on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MUTH 25600 at Ithaca College taught by Dr. Mark A. Radice in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see History and Literature of Music II in Music at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
pp. 494-498 Song and Church Music -secular vocal chamber music was the choice of music for smaller (non-public) gatherings -the church still had an important inﬂuence on music, but followed secular music Song -amateur composition was becoming more and more popular -songs had keyboard accompaniment, simple, syllabic, step-wise, strophic design -domestic religious music with different types of secular music coming up regionally -France - romance -Britain - ballad -German - lied -lied - German song, had a special importance -instruments should emulate the voice, songs were simple/expressive -melody was easy to sing and the accompaniment simply followed the melody -popular style with composers like Telemann, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Carl Heinrich Graun -all of these types of song were very direct and simple -still very important to musical life and into 19th century Church Music -church music during this time focused on tradition rather than new styles -Catholic composers followed styles in opera -orchestral accompaniment, da capo arias, etc. -Italian oratorios became very important, similar to operatic style -Catholic church music also inﬂuenced by symphony forms of 17th century -Pergolesi composed Stabat mater -setting of a poem about Jesus’ cruciﬁxion -very similar to his La serva padrona -in Lutheran church hymns were put in galant style -English church music continued to follow baroque styles -followed traditional genres of Anglican music -Calvinists sang in strict meter, song was encouraged -several were trained to sing and everyone was encouraged to learn -William Billings- prominent composer in New England colonies -The Continental Harmony, 1794 -early works were plain tunes but later he started writing fuging tunes -Billings did not follow the strict counterpoint of Europe, created his own style which was seen in his works Opera and the New Language -new styles from this time mainly were meant to inﬂuence vocal music, but this in turn affected the instrumental style pp. 499-508 Chapter 22 - Instrumental Music: Sonata, Symphony, and Concerto Instruments and Ensembles -music was written/played for the enjoyment of the players -pianoforte and the piano became very popular -more so than the harpsichord and the clavichord -piano was invented by Bartolomeo Cristofori - hammers hit string and then drop away which allows for control over reverberation and also volume control -2 popular types of piano were the grand piano are the square piano -these pianos are often referred to as fortepianos to distinguish from 19th century models -domestic music frequently featured the piano as women were expected to have a high musical skill on the keyboard -chamber music became popular for string quartet - 2 violins, viola, cello -ﬁrst violin often had melody, but there were measures of all equal signiﬁcance (concertante) -clarinet was invented and became a standard in the wind ensemble -wind instruments tended to be left to professional musicians -orchestras were much smaller in size, only about 25 -basso continuo gradually pushed out -violin became concertmaster -wind instruments were still not used as much Genres and Forms -symphony became an important style in the Classic period -three movements: fast, slow, fast -middle movement was often in a different key -minuets were later added after the second movement -late 18th century developed the standard we know today: 3 movement sonatas, 4 movement string quartets, 4 movement symphonies -old Baroque style pieces generally followed the new galant style -common for composers to write in major keys for easy listening with the minor key for instability Binary Forms -binary form - 2 sections, originally form for dances -ﬁrst moves to usually dominant key -second moves back to tonic -simple: ll: A :ll ll: B :ll -balanced: ll: A B :ll: A B :ll or ll: A B :ll: X B :ll -contrast between tonic and dominant key -rounded: ll: A B :ll: X A B :ll -X - modulation -strong sense of closure Sonata Form -sonata form - common form for ﬁrst movement of sonata, chamber work, or symphony -Heinrich Christoph Koch - Introductory Essay on Composition -sonata form: expanded binary form -2 large, repeated sections -ﬁrst goes from tonic to dominant, 1 period -second returns to tonic, 2 periods -symphonies have longer more ﬂowing melodies while sonatas and chamber works are much shorter and separated -set of guidelines -binary form -3 movements -exposition - ﬁrst them in tonic with transition to closely related key, second theme in new key -development - these from exposition are reworked, works back to tonic -recapitulation - exposition is repeated, but with all themes in tonic key -may be a coda -Koch’s principles followed works of Haydn and Mozart, but later became less important as movements grew longer Other Forms -slow-movement sonata form - no repeats, no period in second section -variations form - small binary form as theme -minuet and trio form - two binary form minuets, ABA style -rondo form - small binary form that alternates with other periods (episodes) with modulation between episodes pp. 508-518 Keyboard Music -many amateur musicians played the keyboard and increased the desire for keyboard music -sonatas were considered the most difﬁcult -Domenico Scarlatti - published harpsichord sonatas (Essercizi) -worked in Madrid for the majority of career, not well known throughout Europe -about 555 sonatas written -sonatas are paired with one in the same key, but with other contrasts -used balanced binary: ll: A B C :ll: D B C :ll I V v V V I i I -harmonic scheme is extremely important and is written with texture in mind -compositions are stand alone because of their ﬁguration -Ludovico Giustini published ﬁrst sonatas written for piano - 12 Sonate de cembalo di piano e forte -Domenico Alberti - famous for Alberti bass, composed keyboard sonatas in galant style -Baldassare Galuppi - virtuoso harpsichordist, composed keyboard sonatas -Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach - wrote a multitude of music in a variety of styles, court of Frederick the Great, music director of 5 churches, Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments -favored the clavichord, but his later works were for piano -Prussian and Württemberg sonatas showed a new style of writing for keyboard and had a great inﬂuence -established the three movement sonata form -showed expressiveness outside of baroque style -utilized galant style (important melody, clear sections, frequent cadences, little accompaniment) -slow movements showed off empﬁndsam style (musical individuality and expressive intensity) -ex. NAWM 114 Sech Clavier-Sonaten für Kenner und Liebhaber - IV, second movement Orchestral Music -symphony - work of 3-4 movements, homophonic -symphony had Italian origins in the sinfonia, orchestral concertos, church sonatas, and orchestral suites -early symphonies were composed in northern Italy -Giovanni Battista Sammartini - Symphony in F Major, No. 32 -3 short movements: fast slow fast -symphony style spread from Italy to other places throughout Europe, especially important in Mannheim -Mannheim was an extremely renowned orchestra, played works of Johann Stamitz -used standard symphony style: 4 movements, minuet/trio as third movement, fast fourth movement -ﬁrst to use completely contrasting theme in modulating key -ex. NAWM 116 - Sinfonia in Eb Major -in Vienna Georg Christoph Wagenseil was an important composer of symphonies -three movements, contrasting themes in ﬁrst movement -in Paris François-Joseph Gossec was important in composing symphonies, string quartets, and comic operas -symphonie concertante - concerto-like composition with 2+ soloists with a regular orchestra -allowed composers to show off their abilities in public, attract students, and encourage sales of their publications Concerto -became popular style for virtuosos -piano concertos became popular due to Johann Christian Bach -wrote a variety of genres, music was mainly in galant style -typically 3 movements: fast slow fast -ﬁrst movement had a unique design -similar to ritornello design: parts of soloists with orchestra and modulation -three solo sections enclosed with four orchestral ritornellos -NAWM 117 - Johann Christian Bach, Concerto for Harpsichord or Piano and Strings in Eb Major, Op. 7, No. 5 -became tradition for the soloist to play a cadenza Entertainment Music -some music was written for background music (ex. during a meal, social occasion, etc.) The Singing Instrument -instrumental music was still designed to follow vocal style -melody was important -please wide audience
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