Week 1 of Notes for 2nd Test
Week 1 of Notes for 2nd Test Biol 102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Klein on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 102 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Benjamin Keck in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro Bio:Biodiversity/Ecology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Biology 102, Test 2 Notes Evolutionary Theory I. Introduction/History a. By the mid 1800s – most scholars had abandoned the view that species were immutable; they had accepted a view of change over time i. Prior- species were there and didn’t change; would always be same b. Descent with Modification i. Original theory at beginning of evolution, wasn’t complex ii. Traits passed from parents to offspring iii. Just information passing on through generations c. Darwin’s Observations and Principles i. Voyage of the Beagle in the Galapagos Islands and other trips ii. Came up with 2 observations 1. Excess production a. Very, very many types of species 2. Standing variation a. Not everything looks exactly the same, not replicates iii. Formed Darwin’s 3 Principles 1. The Principle of Variation a. There is variation within a species Class Example b. Example: beak sizes/shapes Why are chili peppers hot? Hot c. Can be phenotypic or inside the body (metabolic ones exist where it is behaviors, etc.) 2. The Principle of Heredity wet and Fusarium is a. Traits can be passed from generation to common; not hot generation ones exist where it is 3. The Principle of Survival dry and there is no Fusarium. Fusarium a. Reproductive rates are too high to maintain is anti-fungal and population size and some individuals will die or fail to reproduce anti-microbial (good b. There are more resources than there are individuals c. “Variable reproductive success” d. Some scientists say it’s a random process and some say it’s a selected process iv. Phylogenetics- came from Darwin, charts that estimate relationships through generations using genes d. 3 main concepts with Evolution i. Descent with modification ii. Traits passed from parents to offspring iii. Variable reproductive success 1. Axes of diversification a. Trophic morphology (almost synonymous to ecology) – line of traits that vary Biology 102, Test 2 Notes Evolutionary Theory i. Think of a meter stick- each tick on the meter stick represents a different variation of the same trait II. Phylogenetics a. Basic premise: some form of information contained in the organisms of interest can be used to infer relationships or common ancestry i. Dramatically changed and improved over time ii. Phylogenetics is a relatively new field b. Why are phylogenetics important i. Medical research 1. Certain species of wasp- venom that can attack cancer cells ii. Endangered species 1. We can find surrogate species to help save endangered species; find a similar species to the endangered one and use it to reproduce more of the endangered species c. Basic terminology i. Node- where branches come together; most recent common ancestor ii. Branch- represent the relationships between species iii. A-E are the most current species iv. Monophyletic groups- share a least common ancestor; share a node v. Paraphyletic groups- don’t want these, not natural, all the things in the groups don’t share a most common ancestor or something is left out 1. Grouping C, D, and E together when C is different from D and E vi. Parsimony- the fewest number of changes, the simplest explanation 1. Tetrapods didn’t evolve 4 separate times, they evolved once vii. Synapomorphy- having the same traits 1. All mammals have hair; all amniotes have an amniotic sac Example of a phylogenetic tree d. Taxonomy Biology 102, Test 2 Notes Evolutionary Theory i. Classifications and evolutionary hypotheses are dynamic and will change as more data is collected/analyzed for particular questions ii. Peter Artedi: Father of Ichthyology and Carl Linnaeus: Father of Taxonomy 1. Good friends III. The Formation of Earth a. Scientifically accepted age of earth ~4.5 billion years i. We know this because of radiometric dating of rocks ii. Radiometric dating: looks at how the radioactive isotopes have decayed 1. Zircon in Australia are the oldest rocks in the world; they counted the number of lead atoms to be able to tell how long they were there ~4.3 billion years; more zircon in Canada 2. Changed over time- 50 years ago we thought the oldest was ~2 billion 3. Radiometric dating of carbon dioxide in living organisms a. Trees; Pando: Quaking Aspen in Utah, 80,000+ years old b. Earth was a hot ball of flame, cooled down relatively quickly c. Plate tectonics- the plates float around molten core d. What is the best phrase to describe evolution? Descent with modification i. Clicker question, guaranteed to be on test e. Everything originates back to one ancestor- Ancestral Tree Diagram f. Fossil Record- still trying to fill in the gaps i. Probability of fossilization- not all living organisms will be fossilized 1. Even the ones that are- whole body isn’t persevered, just really hard bones are, no tissue are 2. A lot of fossils are damaged, especially fish ii. Genetics try to fill in the gaps g. ID- Irreducible Complexity: things that are super super complex and we can trace them back; uses comparative phylogenetics to group different organisms together i. Example: eye ball; can group different organisms based off the complexity of the eye ball (photo receptors, lens, cornea, retina) ii. Forms idea that not all evolution is gradual- instead there is radical change from point mutations Biology 102, Test 2 Notes Evolutionary Theory 1. Change in homeobox genes h. Movement from water to land- took a very long time, scientists are filling gaps and making phylogenetic relationships IV. Theories Against Evolutionary Theory a. Young Earth Creationism i. Earth is <10,000 years old- maybe even 4,000 – 6,000 years old ii. Baramin/Creation Trees- there were a bunch of different life forms put on Earth and then evolution happened from these original organisms iii. Points out the gaps in the Fossil Record b. Intelligent Design