Class Note for POLISCI 101 at UMass
Class Note for POLISCI 101 at UMass
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Date Created: 02/06/15
P0iSCi101 American politics 3252010 85600 PM Third Parties o Why Important 0 Third parties tend to put issues on the agenda that are not represented by the two dominant parties that are important to voters 1920s1930s old age pensions unemployment compensation right to organize unions reform party in 19905 deficit spending one issue parties o Why No Third Parties 0 Tradition and Socialization Americans have grown up with two parties and tend to identify or lean towards one party or the other Partisanship has been started at an early age due to parents and tend to be stable during lifetime 20 of Americans change their partisanship identification during their lifetime compared to 40 of Americans change their religion during their lifetime not comfortable with 3rd parties 0 Electoral System Parties VotersFinancial Supporters n Doesn t make sense to give money to a 3rd party candidate unlikely they will win Potential Candidates Must win 50 1 0 Cooptation 0 Election Procedures Candidates must get high significant amount of signatures hard to acquire for 3rd parties 3rd parties shut out during debates Are Parties distinct 0 N0 0 Median Voter Theorem Explains campaigns in the US Normal distribution reflects ideology or partisanship left is liberals or democrats right is republicans or conservatives majority of Americans are in the middle independents o Yes 0 Base of Support Who supports each parties a Democrats o Minorities and women o Unions and blue collar workers a Republicans o Whites males wealthy business o Religious Christians catholics and evangelicals 0 Region Democrats a Far west east and north east Republicans n Midwest and south 0 Ideology Definition D A world view readily found in the population including sets of ideas and values that cohere that are used publicly to justify political stances and that cognitively serve as a filter of what one sees an responds to in the social world Conservatism n Reactionariesextreme change a Conservativeno change Liberalism n Radicalrapid change a Liberalpeaceful change Moderatebetween liberal and conservative Conservatives v Liberals o Conservatives 0 Laissez Faire o State s Rights over Federal intervention State s solve own problems Limited government in relation to the state 0 Unilateral Decisions in Foreign Policy United states and only united states should make own decision in order to attack a country when there is a clear threat to the US 0 Liberty Merit and hard work over other values Value individualism over equality o Liberals 0 Active Government Role Federal government a problem to most issue 0 Federal Power Federal power over state power Authority 0 Equality Over Liberty 0 Liberty When Making Moral Choices Support liberty over equality in moral choices a Abortion Questions that may be on Final 1 Are parties in decline 2 Why no third parties 3 Are parties distinct Interest Groups 1 What is an interest group 2 What is the key problem facing interest groups and how do they overcome it 3 What are the key activities of interest groups 4 Are interest groups a threat to democracy o Definition o A group of people with common interests that organize and engage in politics on behalf of their members in order to garner a favorable response for its members 0 Interests Some interest that a group shares or all oppose or they exhibit NRA a All own guns love killing animals and what not 0 Influences Seek to influence decisions of a political system such that the outcome tends to favor their members Want to influence what comes out of the government o WhyImportantfunctions 0 Communication Communication of preferences 0 Max BenefitsCut Costs Minimize costs of government activities and maximize government actions for their members 0 Policies Why we have the policies we have today Interest groups and not members of congress are in charge of writing legislation o Types of IGs 0 Potential v Actual Potential interest groups reflect low levels of interaction amongst members Actual have high levels of interaction amongst members a AARP 0 Special v Public Interest Special Interest n Designated and bounded group which they seek to benefit a Seek to provide concentrated benefit to group and disperse costs we all pay costs of benefit a Farm Subsidies o Increase amount farmers can sell their products based on supply and demand o Consumers pay more for milk eggs etc Public Interest Groups a Diverse and unbounded n Represent all of us a Create collectiveuniversal benefits and concentrated costs a Green Peace o Provide a clean environment 0 Economic industry o Central Problem of Interest Groups 0 Central question How do you mobilize members to participate ina n interest group 0 Why are large numbers important Reelection Money Larger the more powerful and more likely to mobilize members to oppose members of congress Large numbers of members allow interest groups to mobilize or collect more money which helps all the activities associated with interest groups 0 Free Rider Problem Rationality and Public Goods Still receive benefits the interest groups provides 0 Solutions to free rider problem Sticks n Violence and coercion to get you to join and participate in the group Carrots Selective benefits a Provide selective benefits to members a Only available to members of an interest group and excludes everyone else who is not involved in group 0 AAA O O O Represents interest of drivers in the US Plan trips free towing Discounts Benefits not given to nonmembers 0 Who is Likely to Overcome EJ Schattschneider n the flaw in the pluralist heaven is that the heavenly chorus sings with a strong upper class accent n Why a Groups who overcome tend to be flushed with FESOUFCES o Middle or upper class backgrounds o Reflect interests of most well off o Mobilized to do so 0 Activities of Interest Groups Resources n Numbers o More peoplebetter a Money o More money they have the more they can spend better chance D Information o Need a lot of information on what they beHeve n Expertise o Experts in their subjectissuearea Targets n Members of congress n Tend to target any institution or any political actor who has influence over legislation n Anyone who can interpret and make policies Activity Lobbying n Act of attempting to influence a governmental decision in favor of ones group o Promote Policy Options o Draft Legislation o Testify and Provide Information About Impact o Counter Information ActivityMobilizing Public Opinion n Protest and Demonstrations n Grassroots Mobilization ActivityLitigation n Bring Suit Directly n Finance Existing Suit a File Amicus Curiae Brief ActivityElectoral Influence n Why o Like Minded MCs are Elected o Ensure Subsequent Access a How PACS 0 Political Action Committees Raising and distributing money to candidates and to parties Can not give more than 5000 per candidate per election Can only give 15000 to parties in a year c Rise in Spending o Contributions to Both Parties o Incumbents v Challengers Threat to Democracy a Growth of Interest Groups o Expansion of Government o Technology a Danger o Federalist 10 o Too Much Influence o Upper Class Bias o Undermine Majority Rule D No Danger o Pluralism o Buy Access not Influence Presidency o Problem of the Presidency o Fulfill Responsibilities 0 Live Up to High Expectations 0 Limited Powers and Resources 0 Institutional and NonInstitutional constraints on Ability to lead o Background on Presidency 0 Strong President Protection Effective and Efficient Administration Balance of Power 0 Weak President 0 Result Central Figure Few Explicit Powers Position Important Figure o Responsibilities 0 Leader of the Executive Branch Take Care Clause Article II Sec 3 a All laws are faithfully executed 0 Commander in Chief Head of defense and all armed forces Head of intelligent agencies Highest military officer in the nation 0 Chief Legislator State of Union Article II Section 3 0 Leader of Party 0 Head of State 0 Leader of International Community 4110 Presidency continued o Expectations 0 Political Expectations Where did they come from a Growth of National Government o Federal government has taken over a number of areas that were previously problems of states o Federal government deals with foreign and domestic policy 0 Education 0 poverty a Presidential Candidates o Designing proposing and passing policies attempting to solve large problems 0 New Deal o Make promises that reflect superman quantities 0 End welfare Clinton 0 Change healthcare Obama 0 Personal Expectations Be like us But not like us a Someone we can relate to but someone who is exceptional and has done exceptional things a An intellectual but a man of the people a Bill Clinton Caring and Compassionate but ruthless and business like a Nice caring but would kill his enemies Responsive to Public Opinion but Committed to Principles n Hated Bush because he stuck to his values a Hated Clinton because he was ruled by public opinion and poll numbers o Powers Vetoconstitutional power of pres to turn away any act of congress Can be overridden by 23 majority in the house and senate 0 Line Item Veto n Allows pres to veto specific parts of a bill But now can only veto the whole bill Pocket Veto n Automatically triggered even if pres doesn t sign the bill to be vetoed a Last ten days of a session in essence a veto Commander in Chief Commander of intelligent services military etc Only congress has power to declare war Executive Orders Directives to government employees that carry the weight of law even though they are not approved by congress Must provide constitutional basis for these orders Congress can overturn executive orders if it counters congressional policy Emancipation Proclamation Truman s integration of the military Executive Privileges Pres can speak freely with his own advisors and will be kept privatesecret This type of secrecy is used under a claim of national security Supreme court protects this privilege Energy policy Pardons Can offer pardons to any and all citizens of the united states Usually occurs at end of presidency Ford pardons Nixon Johnson pardons all Southerners after Civil War 0 Appointment Powers Allows to appoint ambassadors Uses appointments to benefit his political supporters Improve reputation o Lyndon Johnson and Presidential Powers The only real powerI have is the nuclear power and I can t use that against Congress Being president is like being a jackass in a hailstorm There s nothing to do but stand there and take it The vice presidency isn t worth a warm jar of piss o Signing Statements A written pronouncement issued by the President when signing a bill into law Legal interpretation for bureaucracy to follow Not binding do change law but influence how bureaucracy interprets Types a Constitutional o Law is unconstitutional and provides a guide on how it should be interpreted o Belief that the law is somehow unconstitutional a Political o Define specific vague terms in a law in order to guide implementation of a law Bush and Signing Statements a Constitutional a McCain Detainee Amendment o Torture of detainees under American Control 0 Prohibits cruel treatment of detainees inside and out of the US o Bush ignores law and says it is unconstitutional a History in US o Over 20 years there were 345 signing statements o Bush had 161 statements in 8 years c Challenged over 1200 provisions of law 0 O O O Affirmative action Immigration Whistle blower Etc o Obama has used 8 signing statements to date Resources 0 Popularity Honeymoon Effect n Legitimacy and Election n CongressMedia Rally Around the Flag Effect n ReceptionAcceptance Model Highest after an election 0 Institutionalized Presidency IP Provide Policy Advice n Counters or supports advice from bureaucracy Provide Political Advice n Regarding impact of policies or appointments or decisions B These decisions could have negative or positive effects on presidency 0 Components of IP White House Staff n Analysts or advisors o Special assistant to president o Chief of staff a President turns to for advice Executive Office of President a Permanent agencies that perform defined management tasks for the president n n n n o Constraints Helps president gather information planning programs communicating with constituents OMBoffice of management and budget Clears Presidential Legislation Provides info regarding fiscal impact of policies 0 Impact of health care legislation Prepares Budget Writes the budget for president Administrative Review of Rules Institutional Separation of Powers Courts 1 1 Given power to execute laws but courts can interpret the laws and how the president interprets the laws Every pres inherits a supreme court that may not support his agenda 0 Obama Checks and balances Congress Congress and president relationship Congress 23 override veto Senate must approve all pres nominations Congress can impeach NonInstitutional a Time Only has 4 years maybe 8 years to achieve goals How long congress is in session during the year 0 103 days out of 365 about 2 days per week 0 in reality about 800 days to get things passed vacations Pres Bush was on vacation 1020 days o In 2005 took a 5 week vacation c There are 2920 days in 8 years a Media 4610 Presidency continued o Strategies 0 Overall strategy Hit ground running a 86 of presidents policies are enacted within first 100 days a things most important to him go thru the house within 100 days 0 Go through congress Persuasion n Has to persuade members of his cabinet that what he wants is what they want National constituency Vantage points Powers Prestige Popularity Patronage n Things that are associated with only the president a Uses these to persuade to support the pres a Can use these in ways other public officials can t 0 Go above congress Going public a Takes policy and agenda directly to the American people a Promotes himself and his policies by taking his case directly to the American people c He creates a lot of support for his policy 0 Public opinion shifts towards his advantage o Public puts pressure on members of congress to support the president 0 Go around congress Influences how laws and policies are n Interpretation n Implementation 0 Go under congress Intelligence agencies Iran contra a Involved selling of weapons by US by National Security Council o Oliver North o Sold weapons to Iran 0 Arms Export Control Act o Gives money to contras rebels in Nicaragua a Used to hopefully motivate Iran to release hostages Illegal wiretapping 0 When will Strategies be Used Divided Government a Under a Around a Above Popularity and Skills n Above o Presidents and Foreign Policy 0 Problem of the Presidency Historically only a problem domestically 0 Foreign Policy and the Problem Directs every department regarding foreign policy Not allowed to declare war 0 Why More Successful Extensive Powers and Resources n Engages in a number of military conflicts without congress declaring war a Expects pres to be key actor in role of foreign policy a Extensive powers pretty clear cut 0 Information Greater ability to gain information o Secrecy Foreign affairs have a level of secrecy to protect the US Can t criticize presidents decision 0 Constraints Congress Interest Groups and Courts n Groups and individuals have to make a case so that the courts and solvebe involved 0 Normative Implications Imperial Presidency n Expansion of Powers a Congressional Judicial and Media Abdication Strong Presidency a Role of Crisis Congress o Problem of Congress 0 Fulfill constitutional responsibilities Make National Policy Oversee Executive and represent constituents 0 When the structure of the institution fragments power 0 Creates motivation to focus on local constituents rather than national concerns o Functions and responsibilities 0 Legislative Enumerated Powers a Power to tax a Power to regulate interstate commerce a money Implied Powers n Necessary and proper clause o Allows congress to engage in particular arenas education and healthcare that the constitution doesn t specifically allow them too Power of the Purse a Tax Policy a Budget o Programs o income Taxed Executive Oversight n Locate Inefficiencies n Abuse of Powers n Investigate Implementation and Intent of Law a Why Important o Mistakes o Keeps mistakes from happening o Lessons 0 Make sure that mistakes don t happen anymore learn from mistakes o Cuts wastepunishes fraud o Checks President 0 Controls presidents powers n Partisanship and Oversight o Partisanship is important in sense of oversight o Less oversight with republicans controlling congress o More oversight with democrats Representation and casework n Representation n Casework o Intervening on the behalf of the constituent when individual has a problem with the federal government Discussion 47 read imperial presidency o paul thornton msteinpolsciumassedu frontlineorg o cheney s war April 13thSid Milikis Barack Obama the Presidency and the Enduring Quest for Reform in Cape Cod Lounge at 400 pm wars in Iran and Afghanistan Astatus Report April 8 2010 6308 campus center rm 911 UMass mock trial team information session april 14th at 730pm in campus center Lecture 48 Congress cont Structure and Fragmentation Bicameral Legislature o House 0 Elected every 2 years 0 More open to people o Senate 0 Elected every 6 years 0 Entire state instead of particular district 0 State legislatures not people 0 Privatized from people How Bill Becomes a Law o Introduction by Member 0 Any member can introduce a bill as a potential law o Referred to Committee 0 Most bills die in committee or subcommittees o 90 of bills die 0 interest groups in favor or in opp of bill o markupschanges are offered by committee o Debate House 0 Rules Committee Specifies terms and conditions upon which a bill will be heard on the floor a Length of Debate o How long bill can stay on floor a Time Given to SuppOpp n of Amendments c that can be attached to a particular bill in the house a Closed v Open Rules o Openmore time for floor debates provide germane amendments that can be added o Closedlimit time and limit amendments that can be added o Debate Senate 0 Unlimited time to speak about bill 0 Unlimited amount of amendments to bill o Filibuster Senators given unlimited time to talk and can use this power indefinitely Longest filibuster Straum Therman Spoke for 24 hours and 18 min a Civil rights amendment o Conference Committee o President o Structure leads to fragmentation of power Motivations of Members of Congress MCs o Motivations 0 Good Public Policy Many go into congress in hopes to craft policies to lead to positive change 0 Prestige Want to gain respect from peers and viewed as a good member Craft good public policy 0 Reelection Most important Want to maintain place in congress o Why Reelection 0 Power o Perks Provides a certain amount of power to be part of congress Salary 165000 Limo service to and from house Good pension Interns Tickets to events 0 Little Actual Work Do not work very often 2008 only worked 103 days 0 Golden Parachute o Behaviors o Mayhew and Electoral Connection 0 Advertising Key to reelection 0 Credit Claiming Big Dig n Porkbarrel project a Cost tax payers 146 billion a Tip O Neil tunnel Member of congress attempting to convince people that he is the sole reason and solely responsible for something good that comes out of Washington 0 Position Taking Take a strong position on an issue that their constituent has an interest in Demonstrate that you are working in favor of their constituents and working hard for them a Dick Cheney and Wyoming o Votes against Head Start o Against MLK Jr Day o Because these were popular in Wyoming o Demonstrate he is fighting for them 0 Conclusion Solutions Party o Partymajority party o Wields overwhelming power in congress 0 Control Schedule of Legislation 0 Control Committee Assignments 0 Control Staff Resources 0 Rules for Debate Open v closed 0 Persuasion of Members Support for party policies Solutions Committees o Committees 0 All about reelection 0 Fact finders for congress Shortcut for congress members to make decisions Lead towards good policy Official Functions Hold Hearings Inform Public Bill Markup Report and Vote on Bills 0 Unofficial Functions Help members politically Media Attention Promote Reelection Goals Good Policy Solutions Rules o Rules 0 Protect BillsPork From Amendments Closed 0 Add Pork Open 0 Conclusion Produce Legislation Keep Jobs by keeping Constituents Happy 0 0 Congress Today Incumbency Advantage o Data o 2004 98 of incumbents were reelected in house 96 reelected in senate o 2006 94 reelected in house 76 reelected in senate o 2008 95 reelected in house 95 reelected in senate o 95 elected in house 85 reelected in senate on average throughout the years c Public Opinion 0 Paradox of Public Opinion High levels of reelection of members Public opinion towards congress is extremely low 71 of Americans disapproved of the job that congress is doing 69 approved of the job performance of their congress member rep 0 Representation Casework and Congressional Behavior Get things done credit claiming 0 Media Portrayals and Congressional Scandals Focuses on scandals in congress over last 20 years Sex scandal Mark Foley Larry Craig sex scandal in male bathroom homosexual sex Prostitution ring 41310 SpeakerSid on Obama 41410 discussion Bush an imperial presidentis Obama Hasn t done anything to curtail the expanded powers by bush seems pretty comfortable with them wire tapping Due process of law Assassination 41510 Frontline Cheney fanatic of executive power vp wants to enhance his power extremely secretive doesn t email doesn t write things down pres has to have unlimited powers Cheney s lawyer dominated bush s lawyer 911 Cheney turns to lawyer and asks what powers the pres can have at this time period Believed that the pres needed all the power emergency presidential powers Condoleezza rice and Colin Powell were kept out of the deals and documents signed soon after 911 o they felt speed was more important o powell and rice found out by watching on tv Geneva convention did not apply to all detainees in Iraq David AddingtonCheney s lawyer 420 Final May 10th 46 in Bartlett 65 cumulative IDs and Essay Short Answer IGs Parties Presidency Congress Courts and bureaucracy Essay connect themes from beginning of course to last half of course I Review A Incumbency Advantage o Members of congress are extremely good at what they do representing interests of people o Extremely good at credit claiming and advertising B Explanations o Paradox of Public Opinion o Representation casework and Congressional Behavior o Media and Congressional Scandals o Redistricting o Redrawing of district lines every 10 years due to changes in population 0 Larger states have more representation then smaller states 0 Gerrymandering Salamander like district 0 Example Draw boundaries for 6 congressional districts to the best advantage of your party 500000 voters per district Region A center city 1 million voters all democratic Region B suburbs 05 million voters all republican Region C 15 million voters all republican o Gerrymandering o Racial Gerrymandering Southern Federal and majority Minority Districts Partisan Gerrymandering n Concentrate n Disperse n Lulac v Perry Impact o Money in Politics Texas state legislatures redistricting plan Senate controlled by republicans House controlled by democrats 17 dems 15 rep representing state 2002 rep win both house and senate and redraw district lines benefitting republicans 10 dems 22 rep representing state 0 PAC Contributions 0 Spending o Conclusion 0 Bias Against Action 0 Individual rationality Produces Collective Irrationality 0 Pass pork barrel legislation if you want to get reelected IV COURTS Problem of the Courts o Problem 0 How do courts retain legitimacy when they make public policy but are unelected o Undemocratic Nature of Courts 0 Power to shape and Make policy 0 Importance of Legitimacy Are Courts Undemocratic o Appointment 0 Judges nominated by president majority vote in the senate o Tenure 0 There for life 0 Impeachment convicted by senate Treason bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors Only 15 have been impeached and 8 removed by senate Almost impossible to be kicked out o Federalist 78 Essential to our democratic system Frees judges from political pressures Judicial decisions are more pure because they are not pressured by president people or congress o Thurogood Marshall Lifetime appointment once you are there its extremely difficult to be kicked out o Compensation 0 208Ksupreme court 0 217Kchiefjustice o 150Klawyer o Why UndemocraticInsulation 0 Insulated from winds of political pressure with their lifetime appointment 0 Only nominated by president and not the people 0 Control their compensation Powers of the Court o Constitution 0 Involving US and states two or more states foreign ambassadors one citizen of state against another sate state v foreign country c Federalist 78 o The court is the less dangerous of all the institutions president congress Can not initiate action Lack Powers of Pursue or Sword a No power over budget unlike congress a No power over enforcement over any policies Legitimacy and courts a Legitimate a Right to Make Ruling n Ruling is Fair and Correct Review Problem of the Courts o How do the courts retain legitimacy when they make public policy but are unelected Undemocratic o Appointment o Lifetime tenure o Compensation Powers of the Court o Constitution o Federalist 78 o Weakest o Reactive 0 Lack power of purse or sword o Rely on others to enforce and implement The Supreme Court Today o Crush Videos o 81 decision o Violent video games Powers of the Court Judicial Review o Definition 0 Power of the court to strike down acts of congress state and local governments as unconstitutional o Origins 0 Constitution 0 Federalist 78 o Marbury v Madison 1803 When is Judicial Review Used o Stats 0 Federal Laws 160 0 State Laws 1100 o Judicial Restraint o Deferment o Stare Decisis Precedent Standing by that by which is decided Respect judicial policies 0 Why Restraint Lack Expertise Bad for Democracy Legitimacy o Activism Not Always Deferential Overturn Precedent Why a Insulated Court a Help Disadvantaged groups Constitutional Interpretation o Plain Meaning 0 Any law is constitutional as long as it is in line with the words of the constitution 0 Problems Vague New Issues o Original Intent 0 New Issues 0 Democratic Intent o Living Constitution 0 Constitution is a living evolving document 0 Adapts to contemporary circumstances 0 Takes in account the moral lessons the US has learned throughout its history 0 Interpretation of constitutionality of laws 0 Problems Subjective Power of the Court statutory Interpretation o Power to review and overturn bureaucratic rules and regulations if Court determines the agency misinterpreted the intent of Congress o Policymaking influence 0 Shaping interpretationImplementationEnforcement 0 Life of Laws Solutions External Checks o Two Questions 0 How do other branches control 0 How does court control itself o External Checks 0 Impeachment o Constitutional Amendment 0 Statutory Revision 0 Nonimplementation Widespread Elite Support Widespread Public Support Widespread Support from Those who Enforce o Nonimplementation and Abortion Hospitals Abortion Providers Medical Schools 42910 Review Problem of the Court Solutions o External Checks impeach Amend Statutory Revision and Nonimplementation Abortion o Internal Checks 0 Judicial restraint Do not challenge constitutionally of laws passed at federal level 0 Original intent and plain meaning 0 Public opinion Politics of Judicial Appointments o Courts and policymaking o FederalismUS v Morrison 0 Civil liberties Texas v Johnson 0 Civil Rights Brown v Board 0 New RightsRoe v Wade 0 Election of President Bush v Gore o Politics of Judicial Appointments 0 History 0 Earl warren 0 Confirmation Reagan 92 Bush 79 Clinton 84 Bush 78 Obama 78 0 Some judicial appointments that are not supported by the senate o Presidents and Judicial Appointments Shape policy and legacy Litmus test a Policy preferences n Judicial outlooks 0 Congress and Judicial Nominees Divided Government Too Ideological Interest group Mobilization Bork Actions n Refuse to Bring Nomination to Vote a Filibuster 0 Results Stealth candidates a Souter D Thomas 0 Stevens and Obama nomination Activist v restraint Insider v Outsider Youth v Experience Minority or Female Bureaucracy o Problem of the bureaucracy o Achieve functions of interpretation implementation and enforcement of laws 0 Be neutral efficient and technically competent 0 Measuring success or failure is difficult tasks are impossible to achieve and when it faces political pressures o Today s questions 0 What is the bureaucracy o What are public perceptions of the bureaucracy o What are the political pressures on the bureaucracy and how has it responded What is the bureaucracy o Institution responsible for the translating vague directives of congress into specific laws through interpreting the intent of congress implementing and enforcing these laws in the public domain o Components 0 Cabinet departments 0 Independent regulatory agencies or commissions 0 Government corporations o Functions 0 Establish clear standards 0 Create regulations to achieve standards 0 Establish system of monitoring and enforcement 0 Establishing punishment for those who do not comply o Characteristics 0 Defined and specialized roles o Pyramid hierarchy 0 Written procedures and rules 0 Recruitment based on expertiseadvancement based on merit Public Perceptions of the bureaucracy o Too large 0 Why so large o Illegitimate o Unelected o Discretion 0 Constitution o Inefficient 0 Red tape o Why inefficient 0 Difficulty measuring performance 0 Impossibility of tasks 0 Political environment 5410 Review AProblem of the Bureaucracy o Achieve functions of interpretation implementation and enforcement of laws o Be neutral efficient and technically competent o Measuring success or failure is difficult tasks are impossible to achieve and when it faces political pressures B Too Large o Why so Large o Illegitimate o Unelected o Discretion 0 Constitution o Inefficient 0 Red tape o Why inefficient 0 Difficulty measuring performance 0 Impossibility of tasks 0 Political environment Two Political MastersCongress A Congress o Power over bureaucracy 0 Confirmation Every executive has to be confirmed by the senate 0 Budget Budget over every agency in the dept ways and means committees o Oversight o Why is congress interested o Reelection o Interpretimplementenforce in ways that benefit constituencies o Results responsive 0 Budget Congress only controls budget 0 Relative permanence Two Political masters President A President o Powers over bureaucracy 0 Appointment powers 0 Executive orders 0 Signing statements o Whyinterested 0 Getting his agenda thru congress o Reelection o Popularity 0 legacy o Resultsunresponsive 0 limited time only have 8 years unlike congress who is there forever 0 agenda does not accord with agenda of a particular department Solutions o expansion 0 expand in number size influence they are more likely to be able to solve the complex problems of the nation o devolution 0 transfer of control in terms of decision making from the federal government to the states 0 states can deal with the issues instead of the federal government 0 welfare reform provides money to states to deal with welfare End of Semester Review Conceptual Foundation A Structural Setting o Rules of the game o How participants need to act based upon the system B Political Actors Communications of preferences to institutions of power o Parties 0 Decline dimensions evidence of decline evidence of resurgence 0 Why no third parties o Interest Groups 0 Free Rider Problem and Solutions C Governmental Actors o Presidency 0 Problem of the presidency 0 Solutions o Congress 0 Problem of the congress 0 Solution 0 Focusmotivations why reelection important corresponding behaviors why incumbency advantage o Bureaucracy 0 Problem 0 Solution 0 Public perceptions and why bureaucracy operates o Courts 0 Problem 0 Solution 0 Are courts undemocratic perspective on review and interpretations of constitution Effects A Fragmentation o Federalism o Sepration of powers B Political Change o Congress o President o Bureaucracy o Judiciary C Costs and Benefits o Benefits 0 Incremental and moderate policy 0 Protection against tyranny of majority D Costs o Stagnation and status quo o Antimajoritarian Conclusions A Wholesale Changes B History o Crisis o Large majorities in congress o Strong presidential leadership o Unified government 193337 196466 20082010 3252010 85600 PM 3252010 85600 PM
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