Industrial Psych Notes 2/3-2/5
Industrial Psych Notes 2/3-2/5 Psyc 3640
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 3640 at Clemson University taught by Eric S McKibben in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Industrial Psychology in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
2/3/2016 Individual Differences and Assessment Individual differences: dissimilarities between or among 2 or more people Background: o 1890—Cattell & concept of “mental test” o Differential psychology—trying to understand how to measure the characteristics that make us different o Psychometrics—methods to analyze to capture people’s differences; focused on how to reliably capture psychological qualities and constructs o World War I & intelligence tests o “g” or general mental ability How do you compare characteristics of potential employees? o Figure out each of the “pieces of the pie” of each person o Figure out what characteristics make up each person Varieties of Individual Differences o Cognitive ability & the g-ocentric model o Physical ability o Personality—composed of multiple factors o Interests o Knowledge o Emotion (ex. optimistic vs. pessimistic) Jobs that could bring emotion inti work: artists, salesperson, actor/actress, etc. Use differences in order to predict behaviors & their outcomes o Advancing the goals or the organization o Performance, effectiveness o Climate & culture o interpersonal relations & conflict o identification with the organization Fundamental assumptions in applying individual differences model o adults have variety of attributes that are relatively stable over a period of time o people differ with respect to those attributes o relative differences among people on these attributes remain even after training o different jobs require different attributes o these attributes can be measured (KSAOs) we categorize attributes into 4 broad categories KSAO=knowledge, skill, ability, other characteristics 2/5/2016 Person x Situation = Behavior o We can assume, in this class, that the situation stays pretty constant between people, but the person is different o Training modifies relationship between personal characteristics and behavior Human attributes o Taxonomy of abilities Fleishman’s taxonomy of 52 abilities—divided into broad categories of: Cognitive abilities (i.e. test performance) Physical abilities (i.e. lifting, running) Perceptual-motor abilities (i.e. hand-eye coordination) Ability—a predetermined genetic capacity to engage in a particular behavior; relatively fixed—doesn’t change much Skill—fluctuates (i.e. running endurance) o Cognitive abilities Mental abilities Many people consider the terms intelligence, IQ, cognitive ability, and mental ability to be synonyms for one another. We will make some distinctions: IQ is a historical term that stands for “intelligence quotient”; term is popular with laypersons but is generally not used by scientists Mental ability and cognitive ability are current terms that scientists often use interchangeably Cognitive ability and mental ability often refer to specific abilities such as memory or reasoning; intelligence refers to general intellectual capacity (often called “g” for GMA). Intelligence as “g” Involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, comprehend complex ideas, & learn from experience Is “g” important at work? Yes Intelligence (or “g”): broad general capability – describes person’s ability to learn from experience ↑ job complexity = ↑ predictive value of general intelligence tests o It’s not important to measure “g” for ALL jobs Carroll’s Hierarchical Model Fluid intelligence—notion of creativity ; capacity to actively change your schema fluently; tends to decrease as we get older Redfire truckDalmatian RedbloodDalmatian Capacity to fluidly make these connections on the fly Crystalized intelligence—notion & schema are set and are hard; crystalize; information is concrete/solid; tends to increase as we get older General memory—capacity to memorize info; sports announcers have to memorize statistics Visual perception—capacity to perceive things visually that others cannot; artists Auditory perception—capacity to perceive sounds that others cannot; able to produce sounds that others cannot Retrieval ability—ability to encode learned information & store appropriately & then retrieve it Cognitive speediness—the ability to quickly answer questions and process information o Sensory abilities—vision, touch (i.e. massage therapists), taste, smell, hearing (i.e. composer), kinesthetic feedback (goes along with touch; i.e. surgeons cutting tissue with the right amount of pressure)
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