Nutrition Week 2 Notes (revised)
Nutrition Week 2 Notes (revised) NFS 043
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NFS 53 Basic Concepts of Foods
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Carrie Lanphear on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NFS 043 at University of Vermont taught by Farryl M. Bertmann in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Vermont.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
1/28/16 Key Consumer Messages Choose lean or low fat meat and poultry Seafood which is rich in omega 3 fatty acids Limit processed meats like ham, cold cuts, hot dogs Oils Choose oils that are high in monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats, and low in saturated fats Fats are liquid at room temp Come from plants and fish, not a food group, has essential nutrients Avacadoooooooos Coconut oil, palm kernel oil are high in saturated fats- considered a solid fat Solid fats- solid at room temp o Butter o Beef fat o Chicken fat o Lard o Shortening o Hydrogenated oils Empty Calories What are empty calories? –discretionary calories 10% of daily calories SoFAS: things like cakes, donuts, energy drinks, pizza, icecream Add calories to the food but little to no nutrients “empty calories” Small amounts are ok o Solid fats o Added sugars o Alcohol Key consumer messages o Enjoy your food, but eat less o Avoid oversized portions o Drink water instead of sugary drinks Choosing nutrient-dense foods Nutrient density Solid fats- naturally occurring fats Added sugars Concept of discretionary calories Discretionary calorie allowance- amount of calories It takes to supply energy for the day, extra calorie intake is up to the person and considered discretionary calories o Weight maintenance v.s. nutrient supplies Sources Nutrient-dense foods Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015- Physical activity guidelines 6-17 yr olds: 60 minutes a day or more o muscle strengthening 3 days a week o bone strengthening activity 3 days a week 18-64 yr olds: at least 150 minutes a week o some is better than none o substantial health benefits: 150 at least o moderate and vigorous intensity 75 minutes o should increase aerobic activity for 300 minutes a week 65 and older: as physically active as their abilities o should follow adult guidelines o do activities that help with balance Diet Planning Application USDA MyPlate o Amounts needed from each food group o Healthful diet for given number of calories Controlling Portion Sizes at Home and Away Portion sizes may be difficult to judge U.S. trend o Larger portion sizes o More fat, salt, and sugar o David Kessler- what causes over eating 85% of people that crave food that you signal a release of dopamine that makes you excited to eat. If you stop yourself then you go into chemical withdraw. Portion sizes o Baked potato- size of a computer mouse o Pasta- baseball o Waffle- CD o Bagel- hockey puck o Cheese- 4 dice o Chicken- deck of cards You feel full when you have protein o Veggies- baseball o Peanut butter- golf ball o Rice- light bulb o Oil- poker chip Exchange Systems Useful for almost everyone Estimates values for whole groups of foods Focus on energy yielding nutrients Food Labels Requirements o Common or usual name o Manufacturer, packer, or distributer contact info o Net contents o Nutrition contents o Ingredients Descending order by weigh o Essential warnings Percentages of Daily Values % daily value’s is based on 2,000 calorie diet two types of daily values o some are intake goals to strive for o some constitute healthy daily maximums daily values greatest use o comparing foods Claims on Food Labels Nutrient claims o Food must meet specified criteria o Examples “low” in a nutrient “good source” of a nutrient “high” in a nutrient o Structure/function claims Requires no prior approval Notification of FDA sufficient Required label disclaimer States that the FDA has not evaluated the claim and that the product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease Examples of possible structure/function claims for dairy products The vitamin A in milk helps promote normal vision The vitamin B12 helps maintain the body’s red blood cells The calcium and phosphorous in yogurt helps build strong bones Phytochemicals Nonnutrient components of plants Emerging as potential regulators of health o Antioxidants o Regulate protein synthesis o Mimic hormones Blueberries- antioxidants Chocolate- flavonoids and antioxidants Flaxseed- lignans and phytoestrogens- too much of it can lead to excessive digestion issues Garlic- antioxidant organsulfur compounds 2/2 Phytochemicals Soybeans and soy products o Chronic diseases o Rich source of phyto-estrogens o Moderate intake suggested o Downsides Interferences with estrogen receptors in excess Can speed up division of breast cancer cells Tomatoes o Antioxidant lycopene The availability of lycopene goes up as it’s cooked a tomato sauce or a baked tomato Green tea o Die less often from stroke when you drink green tea o Improvement of cardiovascular systems Grape Juice and red win o Flavenoide o Less cardiovascular disease Yogurt o Lacks phytochemicals o Probiotics in digestive track- reduces disease of colon cancers Turmeric o Reduces inflammation and reduces replication of cancer cells Ch.3 Digestion, Absorption, and Excretion of Food The Immune System Inflammation o Response to injury or irritation Increased white blood cells, redness, heat, pain, swelling When inflammation becomes chronic (heart disease, diabetes) Inflammation is an indicator of disease getting worse o Normal and healthy response- inflammation o Problem with chronic inflammation Dietary factors Digestive System Four basic chemical tastes o Sweet, sour, bitter, and salty Sweet, salty and fatty foods o Almost universally desired Aversions to bitter and sour o Can lead to drastic overeating of these substances Enjoyment leads us to want carbs Aversion to bitterness o “Supertasters” – Cabbage, Brussel sprouts, broccoli, spinach “bitter toxic plants” Digestive tract o Flexible, muscular tube Path- mouth to anus o Total length about 26 feet o When food passes the wall of digestive tract it then goes into our digestive tissues by absorption System’s job is to digest food to its components, absorb nutrients, and excrete things like fiber o o o System works at two levels Mechanical Begins in the mouth where large solid food pieces are torn into shreds and then can be swallowed Chewing- adds water (saliva) so they won’t tear the esophagus Stomach ad intestines liquefies the food o Peristalsis- series of squeezing waves that starts with the tongue and goes down o Chyme is the mass that is made during digestion- travels through pyloric valve where it is held there o Timing of eating meals is important bc the body requires us to have nutrients every few hours. o Eating late interferes with sleep o Exercise a few hours after eating o Chemical- begins in the mouth Digestive juices o Salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, liver, and small intestine Mouth Saliva- starches and fat Saliva- health of teeth Stomach o Hydrochloric acid- protein o Gastric enzymes digestion Pancreas- break down protein, carbs and fats Liver- manufactures bile (turns fat into globs) Small intestines- produce digestive enzymes Intestine o Bile pancreatic juice o Digestive enzymes in wall of intestine o Fiber Food combinations and digestion “I am What I Eat” Within 24 to 48 hours 90% of carbs, fat, and protein are digested and absorbed Mouth Food is crushed, mashed, and mixed with saliva Carbohydrate digestion begins Swallowing Peristaltic waves Stomach Gastric juice mixes with food Unwinds proteins Chyme Small intestine Bile from the liver Pancreas squirts enzymes Produce enzymes Large intestine Only fiber fragments, fluids, and some minerals are absorbed Absorption Nutrient molecules transverse intestinal lining Water soluble components- BLOOD Fat soluble components- LYMPH Cells of small intestine are selective Folded structure Villi Microvilli – hair like structures that trap nutrients Transpot Lymph Vesels Products of fat digestion Fat-soluble vitamins Blood vessels Products of carbohydrate and protein digestion Most vitamins Minerals Nourishment of digestive tract Problems of GI tract Hiccups Fiber and gas Heartburn- overeating, acidic juice goes up to esophagus Antacids- designed to temporarily relieve pain GERD- severe destructive form of heartburn Choking Some foods especially hazardous for young children th 4 leading cause of unintentional death of children under 5 Constipation & diarrhea Drink lots of water and eat a lot of fiber Hemorrhoids – swollen veins in the rectum The Excretory System Organs involved in waste removal o Lungs, liver, kidneys Kidneys o Waste materials are dissolved in water o Working units- nephrons o Urine is stored in bladder o Sodium and blood pressure o Importance of water supply- keeps blood rushing swiftly through kidneys Storage Systems Eating intervals of 4-6 hours Major storage sites o Liver- carbs Glycogen o Muscles- carbs Glycogen o Fat cells- fat and fat-related substances Variations in nutrient stores 2/4 Chapter 3 U.S. Alcohol Consumption Total Daily energy intake as alcohol o U.S. average of 6 to 10 percent o Empty calories SoFAAS o Binge drinking- patterns of drinking that brings BAC to 0.08 g% o Moderate drinking- 1 drink for women, 2 for men daily enough to elevate mood without long term health effects o Heavy drinking- consuming an average of more than 2 drinks a day. Consuming on average 1 drink every single day (women) What is Alcohol Psychoactive drug Names end in –ol Denature cell’s protein structures o Kill the cell Ethanol- ETOH o Alcoholic beverages o Produce euphoria in the brain What is a “Drink” Proof- double the % alcohol Who should never drink alcohol? Children and adolescents People who cannot restrict drinking to moderate levels Women who may become pregnant, are pregnant, or breastfeeding o 50% of expecting moms don’t know their pregnant soooo they might have drank before they knew they were pregnant mothers who drink while breastfeeding will have children who will later associate drinking with comfort and security People who plan to do an activity that requires attention, skill, or coordination People who take medications that may interfere with alcohol. Alcohol Arrives in the Brain Nerves o Inhibitory o Excitatory Lethal does o Speed and amount consumed Immediate Effects of alcohol The body gives special attention to alc Diffusion through stomach walls o Reaches brain within minutes o Presence of food in stomach slows down absorption Gets absorbed in small intestine Alc dehydrates tissues o Increased urine output Alcohol Arrives in the Body Liver processes most of the bodies alcohol o Alc dehydrogenase (ADH) Alcohol breakdown in the stomach o Women v.s. men Women make less ADH than men Men have a greater volume to dilute the alcohol Excretion in breath and urine o 10% isn’t metabolized at all o ethanol ion is directly proportional to the alcohol in the blood o Liver can process half an ounce of blood ethanol per hour depending on body size, food intake, health, and gender Rate of alcohol clearance o Only TIME restores sobriety Alcohol Affects the Liver and Other Organs Fatty liver Liver fibrosis- heavy drinking- scar tissue invade the liver o Cirrhosis- not reversible Liver cells harden, turn orange, and die Hard to stop bleeding when you have liver cirrhosis Alcohol’s Long-term Effects Effects on heart and brain Effects in pregnancy Cancer o Even moderate consumption increases risk Alcohol’s Effects on Nutrition All discretionary or “empty” calories Fattening power of alcohol Effects on vitamins o Malnutrition o Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome paralysis of the eye muscles, impaired memory, damaged nerves
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