New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Biology 211 Week 6 class notes

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Faith Leiva

Biology 211 Week 6 class notes 21039

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Biology > 21039 > Biology 211 Week 6 class notes
Faith Leiva
GPA 3.2
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Biology 211

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Biology 211 notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

A summary of the slides along with images
Biology 211
Dr. Jana Prikryl
Class Notes




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"Can you just teach this course please? lol :)"
Everette Rosenbaum

Popular in Biology 211

Popular in Biology

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Faith Leiva on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 21039 at University of Oregon taught by Dr. Jana Prikryl in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Biology 211 in Biology at University of Oregon.


Reviews for Biology 211 Week 6 class notes

Star Star Star Star Star

Can you just teach this course please? lol :)

-Everette Rosenbaum


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/07/16
2/8/16 Ligase: connects two DNA fragments  It’s the polymerase is adding nucleotides is three prime end.  DNA polymerase catalyzes formation of the RNA, which the RNA of the aids virus must be used to make DNA to infect immune cells  AZT(azidothymidine)  ­ AZT can’t form the phosphate link between next nucleotides ­ So DNA synthesis stops ­ Viral enzyme can’t distinguish AZT from normal T as well as your cellular DNA polymerase  The nuclease (where it’s cleaved) is cut between p and 5’ C PT is radioactive and where that is cleaved is between P and T Next topic Ploidy, cell cycle, and mitosis ploidy: the number of sets of chromosomes an organism was  Haploid (n): three strands of Prokaryotes Germ cells (chromosomes)  Diploid (2n): Two sets of  each somatic cells of many Eukaryotes homologous chromosomes.  Homologous chromosomes: chromosomes that are identical in size, shape, and gene content.  Allele: One of two or more versions of gene Human Karyotype  ­Human lung cells have 23 pairs of chromosomes  Cell cycle in eukaryotes  ­organisms need to make new cells for growth. repair, reproduction (in some species)  some of the things that need to happen  2/10/16 Lecture 15: cell division and cancer  connie has aggressive breast cancer  HERCEPTIN: is a monoclonal antibody that interferes with the HER2/neu (human EPidermal  Growth Factor receptor 2) receptor. Its main use is to treat certain  breast cancers.  Cell Cycle: Interphase  G1: each chromosome consists of 1 DNA molecule before replication  DNA is uncondensed: Allows access to regulatory proteins  S:synthesis, DNA is replicated  G2: each chromosome consists of 2 DNA molecule: after replication DNA still uncondensed  M: mitosis (Not apart on interphase called M phase) ­condensed replicated chromosome: easier to separate than uncondensed DNA  Homologous chromosome: contain the same genes, actual sequence of each gene may be  different: consider for example a gene for hair, both homologs have the gene in the same place  but one has a brown version and one has a black version  Sister Chromatids: DNA molecules that are exact copies of one another due to DNA  replication: After each of the homologous chromosomes would consists of two identical  chromatids   Sister chromatids: the two strands of a replicated chromosome; genetic material is identical; 2 DNA molecules  chromatid: one strand of a replicated chromosome  centromere: structure that joins sister chromatids together ­organize the formation of the mitotic spindle  Mitosis Microtubules: long fibers that control movement of chromosomes  Prophase: chromosome condensed mitotic spindle forms  Prometaphase: nuclear envelope breaks down; spindle fibers (microtubules) connect to  chromosome  Metaphase: chromosomes line up in middle of cell  Anaphase: sister chromatids separate; chromosomes are pulled apart to opposite poles of cell  Telophase: nuclear envelope reforms; spindle apparatus breaks down; chromosomes begin to  decondense  cytokinesis: cytoplasm is divided  to new daughter cells form  Three main checkpoints normally control cell division: at G1, G2, and metaphase  How is cancer related to the cell cycle?  Cancer is a broad group of diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably.  DNA synthesis: Methotrexate is an example of chemotherapeutic agent blocking S. Methotrexate competes with folic acid (B9) for enzyme active site for production of thymidine nucleosides and purines too.   Cell cycle phase­specific chemotherapies  ­Doxorubicin interferes with topoisomerase  block DNA strand separation  ­cyclophosphamide keeps replication enzymes from getting access  In mitosis (cell division)  Proto­oncogenes: promote cell division or cell survival  Oncogenes: Mutation that increase function  excess or super active protein  Differentiation, Apoptosis( blocked division, cell death)  Tumor suppressor genes: inhibit inappropriate cell division or cell survival  loss of function  Not enough protein 2/12/16  Protein synthesis: introduction  Are oncogenes dominant or recessive?  Each person has two copies of most genes, one from the mother and one from the father  They are dominant because if just one gene copies says: divide faster, the cell divides faster. Like you've got two feet. Thus, oncogenes are usually genetically dominant, one copy is enough.  Are tumor suppressor genes dominant?  The second type of growth control genes: tumor­suppressor genes ar genes that keep cell division in check. These genes slow division by taking time to repair DNA, or anchor cells to cell exhibits recessiveness.  Cancer is usually caused by at least one oncogene and several mutations in tumor­suppressor  genes.  ­Each individual's combination of mutation can impact the severity of the cancer.  HER2/neu: Human epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene involved in aggressive forms of breast cancer  Growth Factor are proteins that bind to cell membrane that regulate replication and growth  ­Growth factor diffuse through the body, sometimes a long way, bathing many different cells  ­Receptors bound to growth factors stimulate a pathway inside cell that leads to cell division  Each receptor binds to a different growth factor  Different types are stimulated by different growth factors  If a cell has too many growth factor receptors it will → be more likely to become cancerous Normally expressed growth factor receptor genes are → Proto-oncogenes How could we treat this form of breast cancer?  Herceptin: is a monoclonal antibody that interferes with the HER2/neu receptor. Its main use is  to treat certain breast cancers.  ­In addition to stopping the HER receptor from triggering, the antibody also triggers an immune  reaction that targets cells with the antibody. in this way the cells are not only blocked from  dividing but they are also destroyed by the immune system.  DNA → Traits Genotype( Genetic makeup) →Phenotype (physical characteristics)  what aspect of DNA structure accounts for the differences in the characteristics of individual  organisms  sequence of nucleotides Cystic fibrosis:  Cystic fibrosis is the most common genetic disease of people of Northern European descent  characteristics of cystic fibrosis ­Mucus buildup in the lungs  ­infections  ­salty sweat (na+ and cl­ reabsorbed)  ­Male sterility vas deferens clogged and don't develop properly ­trouble digesting food (digestive enzyme can’t get from pancreas to intestine) ­Early death (median life expectancy is 32 years) THE IMPORTANCE OF PROTEIN  ­structural components: muscles, connective tissue  ­cell membrane proteins: receptors, transport, enzymatic  ­Transport substances: hemoglobin  ­Part of chromosomes: histones  ­some hormones: insulin, FSH, growth hormone  ­Immune system: antibodies  ­Enzymes (largest group)  CFTR Gene and Protein  (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator)  This protein functions as a channel the membrane of cells that produce mucus, sweat, saliva,  tears and digestive enzymes. The channel transports negatively charged particles called chloride  ions into and out of cells. The transport of chloride ions helps control the movement of water in  tissues, which is necessary for the production of thin, freely flowing mucus. Mucus is a slippery  substance that lubricates and protects the lining of the airways, digestive system, reproductive  system, and other organs and tissues.  Nucleoside: Base ­adenosine: adanine ­guanosine: guanine ­thymidine: thymine  ­cytidine: cytosine  Just as DNA of different  individual differs because of the nucleotide sequence, different proteins have different characteristics because of the amino acid sequence. There are 20 amino acids that  make up proteins.  HOW DOES DNA CODE FOR PROTEIN? language of DNA (nucleotides) → language of proteins (amino acids) central dogma of molecular biology  DNA → pre-mRNA →mRNA →proteins ↑ ↑ ↑ (transcription)       (RNA processing)    (translation) ribosome  RNA polymerase  Protein synthesis in prokaryotes  ­simultaneous transcription and translation both occur in the cytoplasm  The direction that RNA is transcribed is 5’ to 3’  The direction that the DNA template is  read during transcription is 3’ to 5’ Protein synthesis in eukaryotes  ­transcription in the nucleus  ­RNA processing in the nucleus  ­translation in the cytoplasm  Transcription: DNA to pre­mRNA  RNA structure General structure RNA: single stranded(ish)  DNA: double stranded  Transcription: DNA to RNA (For protein coding genes it’s actually:DNA to pre­mRNA)  Purpose: to make a RNA copy of a gene, allows DNA to stay in nucleus. amplifies protein  production  Where: nucleus in eukaryotes; cytoplasm in prokaryotes  Structures involved: Template DNA, RNA nucleotides, RNA polymerase  Sequence of events:  initiation  elongation  termination   


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.