Chapter 4 : Europe Geography 101
Chapter 4 : Europe Geography 101 Geog 101
Edinboro University of Pennsylvania
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marie Notetaker on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Geog 101 at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Tadesse Kidane-Mariam in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Geograph in Geography at Edinboro University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Chapter 4: Europe Friday, February 12, 2016 7:22 PM Seat of the Industrial, Political, Agricultural Revolutions, which revolutionized the modern world Major Defining Features: Excellent Location- Located at the western edge of Eurasia Diversified Physical Environment- Rich natural resources Ex) Grapes and olives in the Mediterranean Small Size- * Only covers about 60% of the U.S. Territory; Densely populated however: Highly Urbanized and Prosperous- 80% of the population live in urban areas Hedgemony- Colonialism, Imperialism, a dominant power for 500 years Politically Fragemented- 40 independent states in Europe Source of invention, achievement, and innovation Ex) Steamboat Functional Specialization- Geographic diversity Economy- Efficient, productive, regionally and functionally integrated Governance- Democratic nations Welfare- Well-off, aging, educated, well serviced population Geopolitics- Europe is an active player in international politics and trade; however, challenges with immigration and local autonomy East- West contrast in development Ongoing EU Crisis- Single currency across the EU, introduced too soon for some members however Ex) Greece Historical Geography: The ancient Greeks and Romans essentially laid the foundation for European culture o Introduced: Local functional specialization Romance languages- French, Romanian, Spanish, Portuguese, etc. . . Education Spread Christianity Public Administration 5th Century: o Civilization collapsed, led to disorder and the rise of Germanic and Slavic, Turkish hegemony 15th Century: o After 1000 years of feudal turmoil, Mercantilism rose with rise in trade due to the 4 major inventions of the period: Map Boats Guns Compass 16th Century: o Cities became centers of trade and power o The traders had the most power 17th and 18th Centuries: o Industrial Revolution British hegemony Major resources: Coal, Steel, etc. . . 19th Century: o Colonialism and Empires 20th Century: o World Wars, Breakup of the empires, and the rise of the Modern states Contemporary Europe: o Highly integrated, prosperous and stable economies Landform: Alpine Mountains- Largest, continuous mountain system in Europe The African plate pushed on the European- Asian plate to create the Alps o Includes: Pyrenees, Alps, and Carpathian Mountains The Great European Plain- Most people who live in Europe, live in this landform region Low-lying areas with very fertile soil due to glacial deposits Eastern UK and Russia Central Uplands- Some of the richest mining areas in the world Hills and low plateaus Western Uplands: Scandinavia, Scotland Diverse range of physical features and climatic regions: o Major Rivers: Danube, Rhine, Seine, Rhur, Vistula Climate: Consists of: o Latitudinal location o Elevation o Proximity to water o Wind Systems Arid and Semi-arid pockets- B climate Humid Tempurate climate- C climate Humid Cold climate - D climate Cold Polar climate- Tundra- E climate Highland Climate- Undifferentiated mountain climate and vegetation- H climate Demography and Culture: 40 countries have 599 million people living in an area of 2.3 million square miles (2nd smallest continent) o 741 million people if you include European Russia 4th most populous geographic realm Most densely populated regions: Western, Central, Southern Europe Least populated part- Scandinavia (Norway, Finland, Sweden) A realm of slow population growth and decline: CBR-CDR= NI *100= % Fertility Rate (FR)= 1.4 per woman Life expectancy- 72 years for men, 80 years for women (2012) Europe has a negative population growth, more deaths than births; demographic implosion Replacement growth- everyone should have 2.1 children during their reproduction years Europe's most populous countries as of 2014: Germany (80.9 million) France (64.5 million) UK (64.1 million) Italy (61.3 million) Spain (46.5 million) Ukraine (42.9 million) 60% of the total European population live in these 6 countries Urban Culture: Highly urbanized- 71% Dominated by Primate cities- Paris, London, Madrid, Frankfurt, Barcelona, Milan, Athens o Cities are compactly built and densely populated o Primacy - When one city dominates the rest of the population of a country Ex) Paris, France Religion: Christianity, Judaism, Islam Labor Force: Highly educated, trained, productive labor force- a value created in 1 hour's work Realm of great scientific, technology, and social revolutions and innovations Political Economy: How people are governed and how products and supplies are moved through a market Europe is home to the political revolution o FRENCH REVOLUTION (1789-1795); the people wanted equality for all and the right to be a leader Democratic governance- Republic system used by the majority of Europe Unitary states vs. Federal states: o Federal- Three tiers of government Decentralized diplomacy Mint money Oversee the army o The European state model adopted all over the world o Unitary- Controlled from the capital and decisions are made about everyday life Transformation of Empires to modern states 19th century: Centrifugal- Devolutionary pressures Ex) immigration Cetripetal- Nationalism or forces which bring people together Disconnected core; Greece has one of the weakest economies in the EU 28 countries in the European Union- All work as a united group because together they can better protect one another and support one another through the economy o 3 Major economies in the world: Pacific (China, Japan, South Korea); U.S.- Mexico, Canada, South America; European Union- excluding Turkey and Norway o Massive influx of migrants from Syria, North Africa, Afghanistan Economy: Established global dominance due to its technological and political revolutions The core is in Western Europe and the Eastern periphery It is the largest single economic block in the world High standard of living- PCI EU $25,580 GDP- Gross domestic product GNP- Trade balance (+ or -) Income= Quality of Life Current European Economic Organization: Capitalist production system- A market based economy with private ownership A real functional specialization- each area specializes in certain products and industries Well-developed agricultural and mining industries Superb infrastructure- Roads, railways, and waterways connect places with efficiency Urban culture- Highly urbanized Intensive Trade- regionally and internationally Agriculture: Highly organized and productive Four factors that affected the agricultural revolution: o Improved technology and practices o High prices for agricultural commodities o Expanding urbanization and markets o Improvement in storage and distribution of products Agricultural land use follows the Von Thunenian principle of concentric rings: Highest value of land is where products that need to be sold immediately are grown, the farther away from the city you go, the value of land decreases and the products that have a better span are grown Major Agricultural Zones: Great European Plain- Western, Central, and Eastern Europe; wheat, corn, livestock, etc. . . Scandinavian countries- Forests Market gardening- Benelux countries: Belgium, Denmark, and other small countries France has the best agricultural economy in Europe, with fertile soils and highly subsidized agriculture Industry: Britain is the home of the industrial revolution which spread to the rest of Europe and to North America Germany, France, UK, and Italy are the most industrialized countries of Europe Alfred Weber and industrial location theory: o General factors: transport costs and materials o Special factors: perishability of goods o Regional factors: labor and transport o Local factors: Agglomeration- to locate where others are, share the costs; Deglomeration- Firms move to less expensive operation areas Major industrial regions: English Midlands- Southern England Paris Basin, Northwestern and Eastern France Rhur Valley- Germany Silesia in the Czech Republic and Poland Donetz Basin- Ukraine Milan- Northern Italy Barcelona- Spain Four Major Post-Industrial Centers of Europe: Rhone- Alps- Lyon- France Milan- Italy Barcelona (Catalonia)- Spain Stuttgart- Germany Factors facilitating industrial revolution: o Agglomerative and deglomerative forces o Complementarity- Regions satisfying each-others needs o Transferability- Ease of moving materials o Intervening Opportunities- The presence or absence of nearer opportunity Weight/Bulk gaining- market orientation -- near the market, perishable usually Weight/Bulk losing - market orientation-- right to place where raw material is Ex) Wood and lumber industry Mining and Trade: Rich in renewable and non-renewable resources Ex) coal and iron o Norway and Great Britain- Major producers of oil from the North Sea o High Capacity of: Exploration, exploitation, transformation, distribution, consumption International Trade: Globalization and trade; biggest trading block in the world Most trade takes place with North America and Asia Unequal exchange- Lome Convention- Less developed countries o Caribbean and African countries don't have to pay tariffs to sell products in Europe Regions of the Realm: regional complexity- microstates, core/periphery relations o Mainland core- Western Europe o Core Offshore- British Isles o Discontinuous South- Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Balkans o Discontinuous North- Scandinavian States: Sweden, Norway, Finland, Demark o Eastern Periphery- Eastern and Central Europe Major Challenges: Integration of less developed countries into the Western European standards Ex) Turkey Immigration and cultural conflict Growing Competition with major global powers Terrorism Great dependence on foreign oil and energy
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