Chemistry: Jan. 25- Feb. 5
Chemistry: Jan. 25- Feb. 5 Chemistry 1110-002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anzlee on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 1110-002 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Earl Pearson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Chemistry: January 25 February 5 h th The energy and composition of matter changes throughout its different states (gas, liquid, solid) Pure substances: compounds or elements Law of Definite Proportions each substance is independent of location; compounds are identical and the chemical composition ratio always stays the same Compounds are distinguished by their properties: o Chemicalthe way they react o Physical the way they appear Chemical Composition SI Base Units: Mass Kilogram kg Length Meter m Temperature Kelvin K Amount of Substance Mole mol Time Second s Metric System: Tera 1012 9 Giga 106 Mega 10 Kilo 103 1 Deci 102 Centi 10 Mili 103 Micro 106 9 Nano 10 Pico 1012 Femto 1015 Additional Conversions: 1 inch 2.54 centimeters 1.00 quarts 946 milliliters 1.00 pound 454 grams Temperature The randomness of motions generates a temperature in a BULK sample of matter Higher temperature more motion and interactions between molecules Convert temperature (degrees F or C): o Add 40 to the initial temperature o Multiply by the conversation (9 degrees Celsius = 5 degrees Fahrenheit) o Subtract the 40 degrees Density Mass/Volume Making Measurements and Rounding Accuracy how close one is to the correct value (hard to know if correct value is not given) Precision how closely each the found values agree Significant Figures 1. All nonzero digits 2. Zeros that are between nonzero digits or are on the righthand side of numbers with a decimal Ex. 2100 only has 2; however, to represent it with 4 sig figs, you must write it like: “2100.” or in scientific notation (2.1 * 10 ) Order of Operations 1. Parenthesis 2. Powers/roots 3. Multiplication/division 4. Addition/subtraction o LEFT TO RIGHT!!! Round Off Rules o For multiplication and division, the answer should have the least amount of given significant figures o For subtraction and addition, the answer should have the least amount of given decimal places o If last digit is greater than 5 round up; less than 5 keep as it is o Example: Dalton’s Atomic Theory Two different compounds that contain the same elements only will carry the same ratio Example: Compound CO CO 2 Ratio 1:x 1:(2)x One can find the ratio between elements by calculations such as in this example. Note: the mass of one elements must be found to equal zero (sulfur) to find the mass of the other element (fluorine). Periodic Tabl Arranged by increasing average mass Horizontal rows periods Vertical rows families/groups Isotopes Same element with a different number of neutrons, and therefore a different atomic mass Can be found with a mass spectrometer Average mass of each element is found through calculations using the mass of the various isotopes Ions Ions are elements with a charge Anions negative Cations positive Ions bond through electrostatic attraction (usually gain or lose electrons) o Metals lose electrons and become cations o Nonmetals gain electrons and become anions Compounds must form in a fixed ratio
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