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Week 3 abnormal psych notes

by: AJ Ponte

Week 3 abnormal psych notes psych 2510

AJ Ponte
GPA 3.94
Survey of Abnormal Psychology
Julianne Ludlam

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About this Document

These notes cover all of chapter 2, research methods, and some of chapter 4, clinical assessments.
Survey of Abnormal Psychology
Julianne Ludlam
Class Notes
25 ?




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This page Class Notes was uploaded by AJ Ponte on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to psych 2510 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Julianne Ludlam in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Survey of Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Week 3 Abnormal Psych Lecture Notes Research Methods chp 2 Clinical Research 0 Research systematic search for facts through careful observations and investigations 0 Clinical research relies on the scientific method to look for general principles 0 Three types case studies correlational method and experimental method Case Studies 0 Indepth description of an individual or treatment 0 Benefits source of new ideas about behavior tentative support for a theory challenge a theory s assumptions show value of new therapeutic techniques and examine unusual or rare problems 0 Limitations reported by biased observers relies on subjective evidence low internal validity provides little basis for generalization low external validity Correlation method 0 Use subjectsparticipants have a sample vs population 0 Correlation the degree to which events or characteristics vary with each other 0 Graph of correlation shows quotline of best fit and the direction and magnitude of the relationship 0 Correlation coefficient r o Statistic that shows direction and magnitude 0 Between 1 and 1 0 Advantages high external validity and can replicate o Disadvantages lack internal validity no conclusions can be made 0 CORRELATION DOES NOT MEAN CAUSATION o Epidemiological studies incidence and prevalence of a disorder in a population 0 Incidence is the number of NEW cases in an area 0 Prevalence is the number of cases 0 Longitudinal studies observing same individuals over time Experimental Method 0 Research procedure in which a variable is manipulated independent variable and the manipulation s effect on another variable dependent variable is observed 0 EXPERIMENTS ARE THE ONLY WAY TO EXAMINE CAUSATION 0 Designed to eliminate confounding variables using 0 Control groups participants not exposed to the independent variable 0 Random assignment ensures each participant has equal chance of being assigned to experimental or control group 0 Blind design for controlling bias Week 3 Abnormal Psych Lecture Notes I Single blind subjects don t know what group they re in I Double blind subjects and researchers don t know I Triple blind third party doesn t know 0 Advantages high internal validity able to create conclusions can have good external validity and can replicate studies on other samples 0 Disadvantages costly timeconsuming laborintensive 0 Alternative Experimental designs 0 Quasiexperimental designs no random assignment groups already exist 0 Natural experiments nature creates the IV 0 Analogue experiments abnormallike behavior produced in lab usually when ethics would disallow realworld study 0 Singsubject experiments single participant observed before and after N applied ABAB Statistical significance 0 Plt 05 less than 5 probability that the findings were due to chance 0 Results meeting this threshold are considered statistically significant Clinical Significance o How much change has occurred during the course of treatment and has an individual moved from dysfunctional to functional 0 quotsmall effect means not clinically significant Clinical Assessment chp 4 Clinical assessment 0 Process of gathering information about a person and his environment to make decisions about the nature status and treatment of psychological problems 0 Three broad categories of standardized assessment tools 0 Clinical interviews 0 Clinical tests 0 Clinical observations 0 Reliability how well a psychological assessment instrument produces consistent results each time it is given 0 Testretest reliability 0 Interrater reliability agreement 0 Validity the degree to which a test measures shat it is intended to assess 0 Face validity the tool appears to be valid 0 Predictive validity tool tells future predictions Week 3 Abnormal Psych Lecture Notes 0 Concurrent validity agree with other measures 0 Ex MyersBriggs type indicator 0 Not reliable 0 Good face validity 0 Not good predictive validity 0 Only concurrent with extroversion and introversion scores Clinical Interviews 0 Unstructured or structured interview 0 Set of questions designed to elicit information 0 Mental Status Exam Clinical Tests 0 Projective Tests rely on idea that people project needs conflicts and personality onto ambiguous stimuli 0 Ex I Rorschach inkblot test I TATthematic apperception test person is asked to tell a story based on a picture I Sentence completion and drawing tasks 0 Personality Inventories standardized questionnaires measuring broad characteristics 0 Ex MMPIZ most widely used personality inventory that has 10 clinical scales I Hypochondriasis depression conversion hysteria psychopathic deviate masculinityfemininity paranoia psychasthenia schizophrenia hypomania social introversion 0 Response Inventories usually based on selfreported responses and focus on one specific area of functioning o Affective inventories beck depression inventory 0 Social skills inventories 0 Cognitive inventories o Psychophysiological tests measure physiological response as an indication of psychological problems 0 Ex Polygraph o Inaccurate and unreliable o Neurological and neuropsychological tests 0 Neurological tests directly assess brain function by assessing brain structure and activity M RI still image fMRI and PET scan brain activity 0 Neuropsychological tests indirectly assess brain function by assessing cognitive perceptual and motor functioning Week 3 Abnormal Psych Lecture Notes I HalsteadReitan Benderdrawing test can localize brain area that has impairments Wisconsin Card Sort 0 Intelligence tests indirectly measures intellectual ability IQ 0 Ex WAIS WISC and StanfordBinet


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