AN 1103 Chapter 3 Notes
AN 1103 Chapter 3 Notes AN 1103
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Falyn Ruby on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AN 1103 at Mississippi State University taught by Professor Jean Marcus in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Introduction to Anthropology Chapter 3 Notes Archaeology Archaeology – the study of past cultures through excavations and analysis of artifacts, biofacts, and features found. Materials are compared with the findings of other archaeologists and with the findings from older sites. o Questions to be asked: How can cultures change over time? How does our environment/habitat place limits on our culture? How has communication affected cultures? o Techniques Site surveys: overview of the surface and the materials that can be seen on top of the site. Shovel test 2-D Longitude and latitude Excavation: uncovering of materials below the Earth’s surface. 3-D Depth of materials is noted Datum point: a reference to depth that archaeologists use to mark a site Latitude, longitude, depth o Provenience – exact 3-D location Dirt is sifted through screens and placed in water o Flotation: fragments of materials will float to the top when placed in water Features are documented with photographs Skeletal material o Archaeologists send skeletal material to physical archaeologists for testing. o NAGPRA: regulations set to protect Native American burial grounds, and must be met when Native Americans can provide evidence that remains are from their tribe o Testing allows archaeologists to determine: Age at time of death, sex, stature, race, cause of death, disease, location, diet, and cultural information Osteological analysis Cultural traits: cranial deformation, dental inlays, grave goods, position of the remains. Laboratory Analysis Archaeologists date the sites using: o Absolute dating techniques: Carbon 14, potassium argon, molecular dating, ESR, TL – a date that is a range of years o Relative dating techniques: fluorine absorption analysis, stratigraphy, seriation – can tell if one layer is older than the other Stratigraphy – change in stratum Seriation – change in styles of artifacts o Ceramics: study of pottery artifacts Includes the analysis of the clay, tempering, glazing, decoration materials, function and shape o Potsherds: fragments of ceramics o Lithic analysis: study of stone tools o Coprolites: feces – dietary information o Postholes: black carbon deposits that indicate the former presence of buildings Publication: comparison to other sites and sharing of findings Old World Vs. New World Old World: Africa, Europe, Asia o Human life began o State formation o writing New World: Americas and Australia – domestication of plants and animals Types of Archaeology: Underwater archaeology Classical archaeology Prehistoric archaeology Historic archaeology Cultural Resource Management Experimental Archaeology
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