Europe in 1500 AD
Europe in 1500 AD 12590
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Swanson on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 12590 at Bowling Green State University taught by Kara Barr in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see The Modern World in History at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Vocab. Bureaucracy: A large group of people who are involved in running a government but who are not elected Conciliarism: The theory of church government that places final ecclesiastical authority in representative church councils instead of in a papacy. (The movement from Papal authority to monarchy authority.) Constitutional Monarchy: A form of government in which a king or queen acts as Head of State. The ability to make and pass legislation resides with an elected Parliament, not with the Monarch. Dynasties: A succession of people from the same family who play a prominent role in business, politics, or another field. Excommunicated: Officially exclude (someone) from participation in the sacraments and services of the Christian Church. Feudal System: a social system that existed in Europe during the Middle Ages in which people worked and fought for nobles who gave them protection and the use of land in return Fief: an estate of land, especially one held on condition of feudal service. Papal: Having to do with the Pope. Semi-autonomous: (of a country, state, or community) having a degree of, but not complete, self-government. Europe in 1500 The Church, State, and Society Medieval Society Feudalism was introduced to Europe in early 1000 AD relatively quickly. Feudalism was a solution to cease, or help cease, chaos, violence, and the need for protection. There were 4 groups in the Feudalism system: o Kings o Lords o Vassals o Peasants Roles of these groups form a circle of favors. Kings -> Get money and knights in exchange for land to the Nobles Nobles -> Get protection and military service in exchange for land (also called a fief) to the knights (also called Vassals) Knights -> Get food and services in exchange for land and protection to the Peasants This makes a pyramid of favors, like a social pyramid. (This is the pyramid used in class) The Feudal System sounds like it was a really good idea, unfortunately, it was easily corrupted and flawed. Tripartite System: o “Those who worked” Peasants o “Those who fought” Lords and Knights o “Those who prayed” Priests Tripartite System added in Priests and took Kings away from the social pyramid/status quo from the Feudalism System. The Catholic Church Counterpart to the secular state and authority, the Catholic Church demanded a universal allegiance. This demand of universal allegiance created a lot of tension between religious authority and secular authority, which gave the potential for the separation of church and state. The Catholic Church was now made up of priests, bishops, monks and nuns. o Monks and nuns are almost the same, except monks are male, nuns are female. o These groups of people (priests, bishops, monk/nuns) were responsible for administering sacraments, praying, and other religious things. Christianity in Daily Life Calendars were arranged around Christian feast days o This new calendar set up helped more accurately calculate dates like Easter. o For more about this calendar, check out: http://www.webexhibits.org/calendars/calendar-christian.html o For more about the naming of days and months, check: http://www.cgg.org/index.cfm/fuseaction/Library.sr/CT/BQA/k/118/What- Are-Origins-of-Names-Our-Days-Months.htm Church structures and buildings became the most important and imposing building in towns, and looked near threatening and very serious. o This style is still used today with town halls and other buildings of high importance. Medieval art mostly, but not exclusively, became Christian themed, showing priests, God, and other religious things. Christianity brought a meaning to suffering and death, with the introduction of Heaven and Hell. Political Transformation By the 1500’s, monarchies began looking more “modern”, with: o Their increase in authority o Bureaucracy o Consolidating (or unifying) territories into larger territories o Establishing dynasties (family rules) There became a lack of national awareness. o People didn’t know/care about the other areas. France Initially, kings only ruled/controlled the area surrounding Paris The English actually controlled a lot of French territories, such as: o Brittany o Normandy o Maine o Anjou o Aquitaine o And many others This British control sparked the Anglo-French Wars, where the French kings expelled the English from the (technically) French territories. o These wars resulted in the French being enabled to establish the foundations of a stronger, and more centralized French monarchy o The Anglo-French Wars lasted on and off centuries The British were winning for the most part, and it was only at almost the end of the Wars that England retreated almost completely from France and France began to win England England became a constitutional monarchy, which now limited the power the monarchy held. In 1215, the Magna Carta, or “Great Charter of Liberties” was written, which: o Gave a limit to the monarchy’s powers o Declared the rights of rules for the aristocracy and gave them limits The first Parliament was in 1264 Holy Roman Empire? The Holy Roman Empire was not a single country, but an empire of around 300 semi-autonomous states. In 962 AD, the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was elected. o This emperor could not levy taxes, raise armies, or other similar things, except in his own hereditary (home) state o The emperor was elected from the German nobility. It was believed that the emperor had a strong connection with the ancient Roman Empire and with Christendom The Hapsburgs- The first emperors that made the rule hereditary, and passed down rule in the family for a few hundred years. Erosion of Papal Authority There became strong monarchies in Spain, England, and France. The monarchies began to deny or resist papal orders. The size of the Church, plus the lack of communications between the Church and monarchy caused a lot of abuses. Lay, or common, people began rejecting the Papal authority as well. Conciliarism became an important and obvious at this time, and brought the subject to the authority of the pope, the counsels of Cardinals, and other church leaders. Martin Luther Not Martin Luther King Jr. He lived between 1483-1546 In 1505 he was a lawyer, but later became a monk Luther was concerned with his own “sinfulness”, and how he could repent. Romans 1:17: ‘The righteous will live by faith’ o Salvation is about grace, not deeds The Reformation In 1517, Luther posts his 95 theses (or arguments) on the door of the church in Wittenberg In 1517-1518, Luther participates in a series of debates over his theses. In 1520, Luther gets excommunicated by Pope Leo X o Luther burns the bull (letter) In 1521, the Diet of Worms called by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor o Diet of Worms: A meeting of the Holy Roman emperor Charles V's imperial diet at Worms, Germany, in 1521, at which Martin Luther was summoned to appear. Luther committed himself there to the cause of Protestant reform, and his teaching was formally condemned in the Edict of Worms. Luther flees to Saxony Review What did the kings begin to do that made them more “modern”? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ What French territories did the British control? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ What caused the Anglo-French Wars? What was the results and who won? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ Why are the Hapsburgs important? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________ What was the Diet of Worms? Was it a diet of eating worms? Why was it called “The Diet of Worms”? _____________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________
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