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Week 2, Lecture 2 Notes

by: Victoria Greco

Week 2, Lecture 2 Notes PSYC 4200 (Industrial and Organizational Psychology)

Victoria Greco
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Lecture 2 Notes
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Holly Traver
Class Notes




Popular in Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Greco on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4200 (Industrial and Organizational Psychology) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Holly Traver in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Industrial and Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Chapter 2: Research Methods in IO Psych    What is science?   ­A process or method for generating a body of knowledge  ­Represents a logic of inquiry ­ way of doing things to increase understanding of concepts,  processes and relationships    Is psychology a science?  ­yes! It relies on formal, systematic observation to answer questions about behavior    Goals of science:  Description ­ accurate portrayal/depiction of phenomenon  Explanation ­ gathering knowledge about “why” phenomenon exists or it causes  Prediction ­ anticipate an event prior to its occurrence  Control­ Manipulation of conditions to affect behavior     *Self Efficacy ­ your belief of your capability to do a specific task    Mastery exp  Vicarious Reinforcement ­ you see someone get reinforced for a behavior and it raises your self  efficacy that you can do it too  Verbal persuasion ­ “you can do it!”  Imagery ­ closing your eyes and imagining you’ll succeed  Physiological arousal ­ medium anxiety = peak performance      Assumptions of science:  Empiricism ­ generate of predictions based on theory, gather data and use the data to test  predictions  Determination ­ behavior is orderly and systematic  Discoverability ­ behavior can be experienced, examined, and discovered    What is theory?  Interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions and propositions that present a systematic view of  a phenomenon by specifying relations among variables    What makes a good theory?  Parsimonious ­ explains a lot, yet simple  Precision ­ specific and accurate in its wording  Testability ­ verifiable by experimentation/study  Useful ­ practical, helpful describing, explaining, and predicting important phenomenon  Generativity ­ stimulates additional research    Cyclical Inductive ­ deductive model of research  Induction: data to theory  Deduction: theory to data    ­Most research is driven by the inductive process, but it is also possible to start w/ data  ­There is no perfect way to “do science”    Research Terminology & Basic Concepts    Causal inference can be made when data indicate that a causal relationship btw two variables is  likely ­ can never prove causality due to other variables    Key terms:   1.Independent Variable  2.Dependant Variable  3.Extraneous Variable    Manipulate independent, change in dependent     Control ­ important to ensure that causal inference can be made about the effect of the  independent variable on the dependant variable   ­ways to control: hold extraneous variables constant  ­systematically manipulate different levels of extraneous  ­statistical control    Internal & External Validity:  Internal validity ­ extent to which causal inferences can be drawn about variables   ­ ruling out alternative explanations  External Validity ­ extent to which results generalize to other people’s settings    Types of Research Design  Experimental methods: each participant has an equally likely chance of being assigned to each  condition  Manipulation: systematic control of one or more independent variable  *Both increase internal validity    Field Experiments   ­random assignment and manipulation of independent variable in a natural occurring, real world  setting  Quasi­experiments (very common in IO) ­ field experiment w/o random assignment  ­ not always practical to randomly assign participants      Naturalistic Observation ­ observations of someone or something in its natural environment  ­Participant observation: observer tried to “blend in” with those who are observed  ­Unobtrusive observation: observer objectively observed without being intrusive    Case studies  ­Examination of single individuals, groups, companies, or societies  ­Main purpose is description: explanation is also a reasonable goal  ­Not typically used to test hypothesis  ­Provide details about a typical or exceptional firm or individual    Archival Research   ­Answering a research question using existing data set  ­Lack of control over quality of data is a concern  ­minimizes time developing measures and collecting data    Surveys:  Selecting a sample of respondents and administering a questionnaire  ­Most frequently used method of data    Measurement ­ assignment of #’s to objects or events using rules in a way that represents  specified attributes of the objects    Reliability ­ consistency or stability of a measure  ­predictors must be measured reliability  ­measurement error renders measurement inaccurate or unreliable  ­we cannot accurately predict outcomes with variables that are not measured well 


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