Week 2, Lecture 2 Notes
Week 2, Lecture 2 Notes PSYC 4200 (Industrial and Organizational Psychology)
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PSYC 4200 (Industrial and Organizational Psychology)
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Greco on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4200 (Industrial and Organizational Psychology) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Holly Traver in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Industrial and Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Chapter 2: Research Methods in IO Psych What is science? A process or method for generating a body of knowledge Represents a logic of inquiry way of doing things to increase understanding of concepts, processes and relationships Is psychology a science? yes! It relies on formal, systematic observation to answer questions about behavior Goals of science: Description accurate portrayal/depiction of phenomenon Explanation gathering knowledge about “why” phenomenon exists or it causes Prediction anticipate an event prior to its occurrence Control Manipulation of conditions to affect behavior *Self Efficacy your belief of your capability to do a specific task Mastery exp Vicarious Reinforcement you see someone get reinforced for a behavior and it raises your self efficacy that you can do it too Verbal persuasion “you can do it!” Imagery closing your eyes and imagining you’ll succeed Physiological arousal medium anxiety = peak performance Assumptions of science: Empiricism generate of predictions based on theory, gather data and use the data to test predictions Determination behavior is orderly and systematic Discoverability behavior can be experienced, examined, and discovered What is theory? Interrelated constructs (concepts), definitions and propositions that present a systematic view of a phenomenon by specifying relations among variables What makes a good theory? Parsimonious explains a lot, yet simple Precision specific and accurate in its wording Testability verifiable by experimentation/study Useful practical, helpful describing, explaining, and predicting important phenomenon Generativity stimulates additional research Cyclical Inductive deductive model of research Induction: data to theory Deduction: theory to data Most research is driven by the inductive process, but it is also possible to start w/ data There is no perfect way to “do science” Research Terminology & Basic Concepts Causal inference can be made when data indicate that a causal relationship btw two variables is likely can never prove causality due to other variables Key terms: 1.Independent Variable 2.Dependant Variable 3.Extraneous Variable Manipulate independent, change in dependent Control important to ensure that causal inference can be made about the effect of the independent variable on the dependant variable ways to control: hold extraneous variables constant systematically manipulate different levels of extraneous statistical control Internal & External Validity: Internal validity extent to which causal inferences can be drawn about variables ruling out alternative explanations External Validity extent to which results generalize to other people’s settings Types of Research Design Experimental methods: each participant has an equally likely chance of being assigned to each condition Manipulation: systematic control of one or more independent variable *Both increase internal validity Field Experiments random assignment and manipulation of independent variable in a natural occurring, real world setting Quasiexperiments (very common in IO) field experiment w/o random assignment not always practical to randomly assign participants Naturalistic Observation observations of someone or something in its natural environment Participant observation: observer tried to “blend in” with those who are observed Unobtrusive observation: observer objectively observed without being intrusive Case studies Examination of single individuals, groups, companies, or societies Main purpose is description: explanation is also a reasonable goal Not typically used to test hypothesis Provide details about a typical or exceptional firm or individual Archival Research Answering a research question using existing data set Lack of control over quality of data is a concern minimizes time developing measures and collecting data Surveys: Selecting a sample of respondents and administering a questionnaire Most frequently used method of data Measurement assignment of #’s to objects or events using rules in a way that represents specified attributes of the objects Reliability consistency or stability of a measure predictors must be measured reliability measurement error renders measurement inaccurate or unreliable we cannot accurately predict outcomes with variables that are not measured well
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