Research Methods Week 3 notes
Research Methods Week 3 notes Psych 305
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Hinshaw on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 305 at Northern Illinois University taught by Keith Millis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Research Methods in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Ethics Beneficence: maximizing benefit and minimizing risk when conducting research. Studies including human subjects must obtain approval by an IRB board. o Physical harm: negatively affecting the health of a participant. Example: giving a pregnant woman alcohol to examine the effects on her future child. o Stress example: a participant may feel psychological distress if they are taking a survey about suicide and the survey prompts old memories of a past suicide attempt. o Confidentiality: information from studies must be kept private. Example: studies analyzing the past behavior of addicts. o Informed consent: participants must be told about what they will be doing in the study, the purpose, and their right to withdraw at any time. They must sign an informed consent form. Autonomy issues: o Lack of autonomy: some populations are not able to give consent on their own. Examples: children, people with certain disabilities, or people under the influence. o Coercion: guilttripping people to participate. This includes participating to avoid an unpleasant consequence (taking a survey to fail), or to gain a reward (participating in a study to earn a bonus at work). Think positive and negative reinforcement! Withholding information and deception: sometimes participants are not told everything about a study to keep unbiased results. Example: seeing student essay patterns when told the essays for career services. This is usually okay as long the deception does not cause harm and is explained at the end of the study. College studies usually do not mind studies with deception. o Radical deception has decreased due to less emotionbased studies, increased ethical awareness, and greater use of IRB (human subjects board) review. Debriefing: telling participants the true nature of the study after completed. They can then learn about what the study is testing for as well as predicted results. Deception alternatives o Roleplaying: participants are asked how they would react in a certain situation. Example: How would you react if your significant other cheated on you? If you saw someone homeless on the street? If Donald Trump won the presidential election? These reactions are all hypothetical and could change if they actually happened or if the situation changed. o Simulation Studies: used to reenact realworld situations. Sometimes goes too far, such as in the Stanford Prison Experiments. Justice: giving benefits and minimizing risks to participants. Researchers are expected to be present and on time for the study. Institutional Review Board (IRB): reviews all studies involving human subjects to make sure they are ethical and follow those guidelines. o Exempt research: studies with no risk. Can include observations, anonymous surveys and using research from previous public data. o Minimal risk: risk is low to participants. Example: reading about frogs and testing curiosity. o Greater than minimal risk: high physical or psychological risk studies. Example: a study about trauma from rape or sexual abuse. o The IRB process can take a long time and researchers may be asked for additional information. Ethics for animal research: although animal research is declining, it is still controversial, especially among animal rights groups. Here are ethical guidelines to make sure any animals used are being treated as kindly as possible. o Care for and dispose of animals properly, according to the law. o Researchers must be trained on how to properly handle the animals in their study. o Specific methods and instructions must be given to the researcher. o Pain and discomfort of animals must be minimized as much as possible. o Animals must only receive discomfort if absolutely necessary. o Researchers performing surgery on animals must follow proper surgical procedures. o If the animal must die, the researcher must kill it quickly, minimizing pain. Fabrication (publishing false results) and plagiarism (reporting someone else’s work as you own or not using proper citation) is unacceptable. Fraud is sometimes detected when a study is repeated without similar results. Ethical guidelines are always changing, so researchers are expected to always be aware.
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