Rhetoric in Western Thought - Week 3
Rhetoric in Western Thought - Week 3 SPCM201
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gioia Fisk on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPCM201 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer E Bone in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Rhetoric in Western Thought (GT-AH3) in Communication at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Phaedrus Monday, February 1, 9:03 AM Plato's Gorgias Review: Plato/Socrates believes that rhetoric is not a true techne, it is cookery because it only provides temporary satisfaction. Techne - true art or discipline Since We've Last Seen Plato… → 17 years passed since writing G orgias → Plato has become older, more mature (almost 60 years old) → Views on rhetoric have evolved ○ Plato allowed classes in rhetoric to be taught in the afternoon in his school → The Phaedreus is among is "late" works ○ Largely pro-rhetoric (not sophistic rhetoric because that is focused on convincing the audience of anything, despite the truth) → Cast of Characters Socrates (voice of Plato) ○ ○ Lysias ○ Phaedrus → "Relationships" in Athens ○ Parts of Ancient Greece had cultural tradition of pederasty § A loving relationship between an older man (teacher) and younger man (student) ○ Foundation of many powerful, lifelong alliances → Main Topic of Phaedrus ○ Text about love ○ Specifically, whom is better to have as a teacher… § The Lover or the N-Lover → Structure of the Text ○ Three Speeches 1. Lysias' speech (read by Phaedrus) 2. Socrates' first speech 3. Socrates' second speech → From the Beginning… ○ Socrates encounters Phaedrus ○ Take a stroll outside of the city walls and sit under a tree ○ Meanwhile, Socrates making the moves on Phaedrus § Lets Phaedrus lead him to the spot 3. Socrates' second speech → From the Beginning… ○ Socrates encounters Phaedrus ○ Take a stroll outside of the city walls and sit under a tree ○ Meanwhile, Socrates making the moves on Phaedrus § Lets Phaedrus lead him to the spot § "What's under your cloak?"- Socrates ○ Lysias' Speech (Read by Phaedrus) § Why is the non-lover best? (141) □ Relationship ends, a new relationship, and previous relationship is scorn- Loyalty lasts only as long as love □ Lovers are "insane" jealous □ Greater pool of options □ People will gossip § Socrates mocks this speech ○ Socrates' Response to Lysias' Speech § Pokes fun at Lysias § Says he can do better § Plays coy to Phaedrus's demands § Phaedrus: "I won't talk to you ever again if you don't!" § Socrates begins his speech □ Organizes his speech with structure ○ Socrates First Speech § Defines two ruling principles of human beings □ The drive for pleasure - Sophistry □ The drive for the b- Philosophers When pleasure overrides our drive for the best, we □ call it love - may be pleasurable, not what is best § Why not to select the lover… □ Lovers keep the beloved weak and isolated (145) □ Lovers cultivate "weak" men- so that they don't grow up and make their own decisions/opinions, or end the relationship □ Lovers keep the beloved deprived of property and relations □ Love is hostile when it's over ○ What happens after Socrates finishes speech § Socrates changes his mind § May have just upset the gods → Phaedrus: Part 2 ○ Socrates changes his mind ○ Why? § Speaking against the gods and Truth ○ Socrates blames Phaedrus for this § "a dreadful speech, the one you brought with you, and → Phaedrus: Part 2 ○ Socrates changes his mind ○ Why? § Speaking against the gods and Truth ○ Socrates blames Phaedrus for this § "a dreadful speech, the one you brought with you, and the one you made me speak" (147) ○ Therefore, Socrates repents with another speech § Begins explaining the human soul ○ Test Reading Comprehension § According to Socrates, the soul has how many parts? 3 § What "object" is used as the metaphor for the soul? □ 2 horses and a charioteer § What is the myth of the charioteer? § What makes a good speechwriter/charioteer? □ Have to be knowledgeable, have to know audience ○ Soul has 3 parts: 2 horses and a charioteer § Good Horse - desires wisdom § Wild Horse - pursues the pleasurable § Charioteer - has to try and find balance between the horses so the chariot will fly ○ The soul begins with its wings, when the soul sheds its wings - we come to Earth in human form, constantly trying to regrow wings to get back up to heaven (avg. 10,000 years to regrow wings) § Philosophers can do it in 3,000 years - because they are more pure □ Second group - rule abiding citizens □ 3 - businessmen □ 4 - athletes and physicians □ 5 - prophets and priests □ 6 - poets □ 7 - farmers □ 8 - sophists □ 9 - tyrants ○ The Myth of the Charioteer § Metaphor for the human soul § Two horses representing our virtues and base instincts/needs § We aspire to heaven…but crash to earth § Wild horse - represents lust, harms the souls ability to grow § Lust vs. Love □ Lust desire of the dark horse does not bring us closer to the divine ® Easily fulfilled by passion ® Fleeting desire grow § Lust vs. Love □ Lust desire of the dark horse does not bring us closer to the divine ® Easily fulfilled by passion ® Fleeting desire ® In the end, harms souls ability to grow □ Love ® The patient, self-less desire of the virtuous horse ◊ Takes time and attention ◊ Springs from the best interest of the beloved ◊ Is persistent and genuine ◊ If done well, provides blessings to both teacher and student ○ An artful speech: § Speaker must have knowledge on the subject § Avoid "public opinion" and "probability" - need to provide truth § Must have clear thesis and be organized § Definition: Rhetoric is an art of influencing the soul through words □ Without true knowledge of the soul, rhetoric cannot be an art/techne (163) → A final thought on writing… ○ Writing is a new technology in ancient Athens § Moving from Oral to Written culture § Socrates a fan of oral culture ○ Socrates skeptical of writing § Why? □ Encourages forgetfulness □ Does not allow for an immediate response (Lysias could not defend himself) □ Words on a page can't teach or defend themselves
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