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Neuro 3000 ch. 1 notes

by: ask0429

Neuro 3000 ch. 1 notes NEUROSC 3000 - 010

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About this Document

Past, present, and future of neuroscience
Introduction to Neuroscience
Robert Boyd
Class Notes
neuro 3000




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by ask0429 on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NEUROSC 3000 - 010 at Ohio State University taught by Robert Boyd in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Neuroscience in Neuroscience at Ohio State University.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Neuro 3000 Notes Ch. 1  Ch. 1 Neuroscience Past, Present, and Future Officially, neuroscience is a newer field, with the Society for Neuroscience established in the  1970’s.  Unofficially, people have been studying the brain for as long as they’ve been studying anything.  Throughout history there were conflicting views on the importance of the brain. As far back as  7000 years ago, people practiced trepanation [drilling holes into the skull with the intention to  cure something].  Greek philosopher Aristotle believed the brain was not so important, believing it was basically a cooling device for the body.  However, Hippocrates believed it was involved in many functions, like sensation,  comprehension, and intelligence.  Galen, of the Roman Empire, believed Hippocrates and studied sheep brains, among other  animals and gladiators. He found the cerebellum and cerebrum, saying the cerebellum was for  commanding muscles as it was hard like a muscle and the cerebrum was for sensation, since it  was soft and doughy. He also saw the ventricles and came to the conclusion that the ventricles  housed 4 different fluids that conducted info to and from the brain using nerves that he believed  were similar to blood vessels. Vesalius, of the Renaissance, added more structural detail to Galen’s original thought. Descartes believed the brain only controlled aspects of behavior that was the same in other  animals. He believed the mind was different from the brain, in that the mind was the center for  thought, intellect, and emotion. th th Gray and white matter was discovered in the 17  and 18  century. White matter were nerve  fibers to bring info in and out of the gray matter.  Gross anatomy of the nervous system, both central and peripheral were described by the end of  the 18  century. Gyri [bumps] and sulci [grooves] were studied to find the cerebrum divided into lobes, leading to localization of function. Galvani and du Bois­Reymond thought that nerves worked as wires because they knew electrical stimulation to nerves caused muscle twitching. Nerves contained filaments, called nerve fibers. Bell and Magendie figured out that nerve transmission down a fiber was one way, so there had to be two modes of transport, a ventral [to muscles] root and a dorsal [to brain containing sensory  info] root. Flourens proved the cerebellum had control over movement and the cerebrum had control over  sensation and perception using bird brain models. Gall further explored localization by proposing that each bump on the brain correlated with a  aspect of personality. This was wrong but allowed for correct localization of function to come  out. Broca studied the brain of someone who had lost the ability of speech. He discovered the an area  that had been lesioned, which he concluded controlled speech after studying more brains like it,  calling it Broca’s area.  Fritsch and Hitzig, using dogs and frogs in 1870, showed specific region of brain controlled  movement using electrical stimulation. Munk used experimental ablation to study localization of function in animals, specifically the  occipital lobe.  Using Darwin’s findings, it was concluded that the nervous systems evolved like the rest of the  organism, justifying the use of animal models.  Squid, snail ­basic biology of neurons, synaptic transmission, plasticity Cats, primates­visual system Rats, mice­neuropharmacological and behavioral studies C. elegans (worm)­ aging, development D. melanogaster (fruit fly)­synapse formation D. rerio (zebrafish)­development, drug screening Animal research is tightly regulated, as well their welfare, sometimes more than human welfare.  They’re also used to study major diseases of the nervous system. Alzheimer’s disease­degeneration of cholinergic neurons, dementia, fatal Parkinson’s disease­degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, loss of voluntary movement Depression­15 million experience, major cause of suicide Schizophrenia­ 2 million affected, severe psychotic illness. Delusions, hallucinations, bizarre  behavior Spinal cord injury Stroke­ loss of blood supply can lead to permanent loss of function Epilepsy­ seizures due to disruption of normal brain electrical activity Multiple sclerosis­loss of nerve conduction Autism­ early childhood disorder where children’s have impairments in communication and  social interaction     


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