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Biology 102 Notes, Week 4

by: annazeberlein

Biology 102 Notes, Week 4 BIOL102

Marketplace > College of Charleston > Biology > BIOL102 > Biology 102 Notes Week 4
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These notes are for the class after the exam, 2/4, where we started talking about the beginning of life on Earth.
Concepts/Apps in Biology II
Dr. Heather Pritchard
Class Notes
Biology, biology 102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by annazeberlein on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL102 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Heather Pritchard in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Concepts/Apps in Biology II in Biology at College of Charleston.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
The Beginning of the Earth - Conditions on Ancient Earth (formed ~4.6 billion years ago) o Dynamic environment § UV radiation, volcanoes, earthquakes, lightning, storms, etc o The atmosphere § Hydrogen, methane, ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide (unbreathable for us) § Water vapor (there was a great deal of heat coming from the center of the earth, heating up the oceans) § Very little free oxygen (one of the requirements for a great deal of life, without oxygen, compounds would break down with it present – crucial to evolution) o Chemical evolution or abiotic synthesis § Origin of life from nonliving material o 4 stages in the origin of life § 1) Production of organic (carbon-based) molecules • Stanley Miller, 1953, proved that building blocks could be produced to create life • Hydrothermal vents o Pressure and heat helped build organic compounds • Meteorites o Fell to earth with amino acids (formed in space) § 2) Polymer formation • Small molecules form chains (carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, etc) o Clay of tidal flats (pluff mud) § Has a charge that adheres proteins to it, facilitating bond formation o Iron sulfide rocks at hydrothermal vents (holds onto amino acids, uses heat from vents to facilitate bonding) § 3) Polymer replication • “RNA World Hypothesis” o 1 genetic material (they think) o Acts as ribozymes to self replicate • Mistakes = mutations = diversity o Substrates (results of mistakes in RNA) for natural selection • DNA later evolved from RNA o Greater stability (thymine evolved from uracil, making it more stable) o Two chains connected are more stable and less susceptible than one chain § 4) Protocells • Formation of membranes (phospholipid bilayer) o Tidal flats (location of formation of these membranes from the oils present) • Establishes a microenvironment for molecular cooperation o Concentrate materials o Engage in metabolism o they have the potential to divide and replicate o it’s like shaking oil and vinegar, the liquids divide within each other and never truly mix o they store energy in the form of voltage • nanobes (modern day protocells) o They have a phospholipid bilayer and are much like how we think of the first protocells - Prokaryotes evolve o ~3.8 billion years ago o Evolve from protocells o They dominate the next 2 bilion years § This is when the development of election transport systems for respiration evolves o And photosynthesis in some § Changed the atmosphere (accumulation of oxygen -> § The ozone § Aerobic respiration (utilizing oxygen to become more efficient at making energy, more like our respiration) § This is where natural selection began to take place that if you couldn’t live with oxygen, you died or lived somewhere with less oxygen - The origin of eukaryotes o Eukaryotes are more complex, characterized by containing membrane bound organelles o 1) Membrane enfolding o 2) Endosymbiosis § Cell lives life (after being consumed by another cell) in another cell benefitting both § ex: bacteria living in amoebas • studied for years as the amoebas evolved, the bacteria evolved too, and when the bacteria was removed, the amoebas died - Prokaryotes o Two domains: bacteria and archaea § Smallest, most abundant and widely dispersed § In 1 gram of soil, there are 4000-5000 species of bacteria, doubling in marine sediment § 90% are beneficial, 10% are pathogenic (disease causing) o Prokaryotic structure § 3 basic shapes (coccus, bacillus, spirillum) § Small size § Unicellular (but they live together in colonies in chains and clusters in a biofilm, like on your teeth) § Internal structure • Nucleoid region o Singular circular chromosome • Ribosomes • Plasmids • Specialized membranes § External structure • Cell wall structure and the gram stain • More antibiotic resistant • Adhesive structures o Capsule § Polysaccharides (help form biofilms) o Pili • Flagellum o Depends on the species as to whether or not they have one o Helps with motility, movement • o Metabolic diversity § Autotrophs • They make their own food (self-feeders) • Photoautotrophic – use sunlight and carbon dioxide is the carbon source • Chemoautotrophic – use inorganic substances and carbon dioxide is the carbon source § Heterotrophs • They use other things to feed (other-feeders) • Photoheterotrophic – ise sunlight and organic compounds is the carbon source • Chemoheterotrophic – use organic compounds and organic compounds is the carbon source


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