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Psych 203, Week 1 Chp 1

by: _chelsealeroy

Psych 203, Week 1 Chp 1 203

Marketplace > Towson University > Psychlogy > 203 > Psych 203 Week 1 Chp 1
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About this Document

These notes cover all of chapter one for this course. It includes the topics: The Life-Span Perspective, The Nature of Development, Theories of Development and Research of Development.
Human Development
Mary Collins
Class Notes
Psychology, HumanDevelopment, 203




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by _chelsealeroy on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 203 at Towson University taught by Mary Collins in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Human Development in Psychlogy at Towson University.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Chapter 1: “Introduction” Notes  The Life­Span Perspective  LIfe­Spanis how long a person lives  Life­Expectancy is the average age a person is expected to live  ● Fun Fact: the average American’s life expectancy is 78 years old as of 2011 Development ​is the change that begins at conception and continues until a person is no longer  living (continues over the life­span of a person)  ● it is important to study development because it prepares us to be more efficient in  understanding children and helps with understanding our own lives.    Characteristics of the​ife­Span Perspective   Development is:  ● Lifelong  ○ there is no age that development stops  ● Multidimensional  ○ development involves biological, cognitive and socioemotional  dimensions  ● Multidirectional  ○ time our dimensions can either expand or shrink.  ● Plastic  ○ change is possible and there is room for change   ● Multidisciplinary  ○ researchers in different areas of discipline look into development   ● Contextual  ○ all development consists within a context or setting  ■ Normative Age­Graded Influences: influences that are similar for  people in a particular age group.   ● Ex.: puberty  ■ Normative History­Graded Influences: common to people of a  particular generation because of historical events.   ● Ex.: great depression   ■ Nonnormative Life Events: unusual events that have a major  impact on an individual's life.   ● Ex.: car accident  ● Development involves growth, maintenance and regulation of loss   ○ there is conflict and competition in trying to reach these three goals    Contemporary Concerns  ● Health and Well­Being   ○ Health professionals (clinical psychologist) help people to improve their  well­being   ● Parenting and Education  ○ How parents and schools have effects on the develop on children   ■ Ex: The effects of divorce or gay parents and the effects of poverty and  education  ● Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity  ○ Cross­Cultural Studies  ■ comparing one culture with another   ○ Ethnicity  ■ cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language  ○ Socioeconomic Status  ■ grouping people in the similar occupational, educational and economical  characteristics   ○ Gender  ■ male or female  ○ Social Policy  ■ the government’s actions used to promote welfare of its citizens    The Nature of Development  3 Elements:  1. Biological Processes  a. changes in a person’s physical nature.   i. Ex: genetics, lifestyle, nutrition, hormonal changes etc  2. Cognitive Processes   a. changes in an individual's thoughts, intelligence, and language.   i. Ex: solving crossword puzzles and memorizing a poem  3. Socioemotional Processes  a. changes in an individual’s relationship with other people, changes in emotions,  and changes in personality  i. Ex: having fun at senior prom  Conceptions of Age:  ● Chronological Age  ○ how old you are  ● Biological Age  ○ age based on biological health (function of vital organs)  ● Psychological Age  ○ age based on adaptive capacities compared to those in the same chronological  age  ● Social Age  ○ age based on connectedness with others and the social roles one adopts  Fun Fact: research reveals that happiness increases with age Developmental Issues  Nature vs. Nurture  ● Concerns the extent to which development is influenced by nature and nurture  ○ Nature is an organism's biological inheritance   ○ Nurture is an organism's environmental experiences   Stability­change issue  ● Involving the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or  chang  Continuity­discontinuity issue  ● Focuses on the degree to which development involves either: gradual, cumulative  change or distinct stages    Theories of Development  Theory: a coherent set of ideas that helps to explain data and make predictions   Hypothesis: assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy and  usually come from theories.  Scientific Methois a tool used to answer questions about theories  ● Steps  ○ Conceptualize a process or problems to be studied  ○ Collect research information  ○ Analyze data  ○ Draw conclusions  Psychoanalytic Theories   Describe development primarily in terms of the unconscious   ● Freud (Psychoanalysis)  ○ described development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion  ● Erikson   ○ created 8 stages of development that unfold as we go through life   Cognitive Theories   Emphasize conscious thoughts  ● Piaget (Cognitive Developmental)  ○ states that children go through 4 stages of cognitive development as they  construct their understanding of the world  ● Vygotsky (Sociocultural Cognitive)  ○ Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development  ● Information­processing   ○ Emphasizes that individuals should manipulate information, monitor it, strategize  about it  Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories   State that development can be described by behaviors learned through interactions with our  surroundings   ● Skinner (Operant Conditioning)  ○ states that development is based off the behavioral changes that are influenced  by rewards and punishments  ● Bandura (Social Cognitive Theory)  ○ states that behavior, environment, and person/cognitive factors are the key  factors in development  Ethological Theory  Stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, tied to evolution, and characterized by  critical or sensitive periods  ● Ethology is the study of animals in their natural habitat  ● Lorenz’s Research with Greylag Geese  ○ helped bring ethology to prominence; he discoveremprinting​the rapid, innate  learning that involves attachment to the first moving object seen   ● John  Bowlby   ○ stressed that attachment to a caregiver over the first year of life has important  consequences throughout the life­span   ■ a positive + secure caregiver = positive development in the childhood &  adulthood  Ecological Theory   ● Bronfenbrenner  ○ states that development reflects the influence of several environmental systems  ■ Microsystem: the most direct relations (family, school, peers, etc)  ■ Mesosystem: the relations between micro­ and exo­ (the relation of family  to school experiences)  ● Ex.: children whose parents rejected them would have issues with  developing relationships with teachers  ■ Exosystem: social settings where the individual does not have an active  role (friends of family, neighbors, mass media, etc)  ■ Macrosystem: the culture in which the individual lives in  ■ Chronosystem: the patterning of environmental events and transitions  over the life course   ● Ex: Divorce and its negative effects on the individual's  development   Eclectic Theoretical Orientation  Does not follow any theoretical approach, but each theory contributes to the understanding of  development.    Research in Life­Span Development  Methods For Collecting Data  ● Observation   ○ Laboratory: a controlled setting where factors of the “real world” are left out   ○ Naturalistic: Observation done in a real world setting where the there is little to no  manipulation or control to the situation  ● Survey and Interview  ○ Getting information by asking people by either direct questioning or through a  questionnaire   ● Standardized Test  ○ Uniform procedures used for administration and scoring. They provide  performance differences among people  ■ Ex: SAT or ACT testing  ● Case Study  ○ An indepth study of a single person; focuses on the aspect of that individual’s life  that helps the researcher understand the person’s mind, behavior, or other  attributes  ● Physiological Measures  ○ The study of development at different points in life span  ■ Ex: studying hormonal changes during puberty  Research Designs  ● Descriptive Research  ○ Aims to observe and record behavior; it reveals important information about  people’s behavior and provides basis for more scientific studies  ● Correlational Research   ○ Describes the strength of the relationship between two or more event or  characteristics  ■ the more strongly the events are related the more effectively one event  can be predicted from another  ○ Correlation Coefficie a number based on statistical analysis used to describe  the degree of association between two variables; numbers range from ­1.00 to  +1.00  ● Experimental Research  ○ Experiment is a procedure where one or more factors believed  to influence  behavior being studied are manipulated while all other factors are held constant  ■ Independent and Dependent Variables  ● Independent: a manipulated factor that influences the situation  ● Dependent: the factor that changes in response to the  independent variable  ■ Experimental and Control Groups  ● Experimental: the group which is being manipulated in the testing  ● Control: the group which treated the same as the experimental  group, but is not being manipulated   Time Span of Research   ● Cross­sectional Approach  ○ the simultaneous comparison of individuals of different ages   ● Longitudinal Approach   ○ the same individuals are studied over a period of time (several years or more)  ● Cohort Effects  ○ due to a person’s time of birth, era, or generation; not the person's chronological  age   ○ Cohort: a group of people who are born within a similar point in history and share  similar experiences as a result  Conducting Ethical Research   ● APA’s Ethical Guidelines   ○ Informed Consent  ■ participants must know what the experiment will involve and what the  risks may be   ○ Confidentiality  ■ researchers must keep all data they gather completely confidential   ○ Debriefing   ■ after completing the study the participants must be informed of the study's  purpose and the methods that were used  ○ Deception  ■ Telling the participant what the study entails beforehand can alter the  participants behavior and invalidates the research           ***All information was taken from professor Mary P. Collins and ​ Essentials of Life­Span  Development ​ 3rd edition by John W. Santrock             


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