Abnormal Psychology Ch.2
Abnormal Psychology Ch.2 Psych 433
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Derek Schrick on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 433 at University of Missouri - Kansas City taught by K. Harry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Kansas City.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Ch.2- An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology One Dimensional vs. Multidimensional Models One dimensional Models o Explain behavior in terms of a single cause o Tend to ignore information from other areas o Example: Explaining obsessive-compulsive disorder as the result of family history alone o Example: traumatic event that discomforts and causes OCD Multidimensional Models o Interdisciplinary, eclectic, and integrative o “System” of influences that cause and maintain suffering o Draw upon information from several sources o Abnormal behavior results form multiple influences Major Influences: - Biological - Behavioral – Emotional – Social & cultural – Developmental – Environmental Genetic Contributions to Psychopathology • Phenotype vs. genotype Genotype- genes; provide foundries from development/environment Phenotype- how you express your genes • Nature of genes – Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) – the double helix – 23 pairs of chromosomes – Dominant vs. recessive genes – Development and behavior is often polygenetic - Multiple genes contribute to multiple factors • Genetic contribution to psychopathology – Less than 50% The Interaction of Genetic and Environmental Effects • Eric Kandel and gene-environment interactions – The genetic structure of cells actually changes as a result of learning experiences - E.g., an inactive gene may become active because of environmental influences • The diathesis-stress model Reciprocal gene-environment model – Outcomes are a result of interactions between genetic vulnerabilities and experience – Examples: depression, impulsivity Ch.2- An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology • Epigenetics and the Non-genomic inheritance of behavior – Genes are not the whole story – Environmental influences (e.g., parenting style) may override genetics Neuroscience Contributions to Psychopathology The field of neuroscience – The role of the nervous system in disease and behavior • Branches of human nervous system – The central nervous system (CNS) • Brain and spinal cord – The peripheral nervous system (PNS) • Somatic and autonomic branches - Somatic= smile, walking, jumping, talking - Autonomic= breathing, digestion, heart beat, hormone release Overview: Neuroscience and Brain Structure • Two main parts: 1. Brainstem • Contains hindbrain, midbrain, thalamus and hypothalamus (between brainstem and forebrain) 2. Forebrain • Contains limbic system, basal ganglia, cerebral cortex (larges part of the brain, the wrinkled outer structure) Neurotransmitters • Functions of Neurotransmitters – “Chemical messengers” - transmit messages between brain cells – Other chemical substances in the brain • Agonists • Inverse agonists- produce affects opposite of given neurotransmitter • Antagonists- inhibit or block function of neurotransmitter • Most drugs are either agonistic or antagonistic Neuroscience: Functions of Main Types of Neurotransmitters • Main types of neurotransmitters – Serotonin (5-HT) – Glutamate – Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) – Norepinephrine – Dopamine Serotonin Ch.2- An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology • Also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) • Influences information processing, behavior, mood and thoughts • Dysregulated serotonin may contribute to depression • Very low serotonin linked to instability and impulsivity Norepinephrine • Also called noradrenaline • Involved in alarm responses and basic bodily processes (e.g. breathing) Dopamine • Implicated in depression and ADHD • Link between excessive dopamine and schizophrenia • Link between reduced dopamine and Parkinson’s disease Implications of Neuroscience for Psychopathology • Relations between brain and abnormal behavior – Example: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) • Man developed OCD after part of his frontal cortex was damaged during brain surgery • Psychosocial influences – Can change brain structure and function • Treatments for mental health problems may now focus on the brain regions found to be relevant for these problems • Psychotherapy – Also can change brain structure and function – Medications and psychotherapy are often used together The Contributions of Behavioral and Cognitive Science • Conditioning and cognitive processes (raising hand, waiting in line) – Early research on classical conditioning: Simple associations are learned between two things that tend to occur together – Later research indicated that it is not that simple – this sort of learning is influenced by higher-order cognitive processes. • Other types of learning – Respondent and operant learning – Learned helplessness – Social learning • Modeling and observational learning – Prepared learning Cognitive Science and the Unconscious • There may be a dissociation between behavior and consciousness – Implicit memory • Acting on the basis of experiences that are not recalled - Blind Sight Ch.2- An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology Some people who are blind can still sense objects that would be in their visual field even if they do not experience sight – Some experimental tests reveal implicit processing The Role of Emotion in Psychopathology • The nature of emotion – To elicit or evoke action – Action tendency different from affect and mood – Intimately tied with several forms of psychopathology • Components of emotion – Behavior, physiology, and cognition – Example of fear: Anxious thoughts, elevated heart rate, tendency to flee - Harmful side of emotional dysregulation – Emotions like anger, hostility, sadness and anxiety play a key role in psychopathology – Some emotions (e.g., chronic hostile arousal) and emotion suppression can have negative health consequences Cultural, Social, and Interpersonal Factors in Psychopathology • Cultural factors – Influence the form and expression of behavior - Culturally- 90% women have phobia (men= no phobia b/c not manly) • Gender effects – Men and women may differ in emotional experience and expression • Social support effects on health and behavior – Frequency and quality important – Related to mortality, disease, and psychopathology Social Stigma of Psychopathology • Culturally, socially, and interpersonally situated • Problems with social stigma – May limit the degree to which people express mental health problems • E.g., concealing feelings of depression > unable to receive support from friends – May discourage treatment seeking Life-Span and Developmental Influences Over Psychopathology • Life-span developmental perspective – Addresses developmental changes – Influence and constrain what is normal and abnormal • The principle of equifinality – From developmental psychopathology Ch.2- An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology – Several paths to a given outcome – Paths vary by developmental stage Summary of the Multidimensional Perspective of Psychopathology • Multiple causation – The rule, not the exception • Take a broad, comprehensive, systemic perspective – Biological and neuroscientific – Cognitive and emotional – Social, cultural, and developmental factors Summary of the Multidimensional Perspective of Psychopathology • A multidimensional, comprehensive approach puts us in the best position to: – Understand the causes of psychopathology – Alleviate and prevent psychopathology The Effects of alcohol on students in social situations: - Develop an explanation for alcohol abuse and dependence using behavioral and cognitive theory Behavioral Theory: - Conditioned responses - Feeling accepted when drinking; talking to people you usually wouldn’t; reinforcement of behavior Cognitive Theory: - various factors from family members Exam Questions: 1. Your uncle spent most of his teen years in a hospital undergoing treatment for a severe physical illness. As an adult, he is rather shy and withdrawn, particularly around women. He has been diagnosed with social phobia, and you believe that it is entirely due to lack of socialization during his teen year. a. Multidenensional b. Intergrative c. One-dimensional d. biological 2. The most accurate way to think of genes is that they? a. Set boundaries for our development b. Determine both our physical but not psychological characteristics c. Determine physical but not psychological characteristics d. Actually have very little to do with any of the characteristics that we apple Ch.2- An Integrative Approach to Psychopathology 3. The most recent estimates of the contribution of genetics to the development of personality characteristics such as shyness or activity level are appropriately ________ percent? a. b. 30-50 c. d.