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p 82-93 THIS ONE

by: Stephanie Robertson

p 82-93 THIS ONE Psychology 110

Stephanie Robertson
GPA 3.6

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p 82-93 THIS ONE
Anastasia Kerr-German
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Robertson on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psychology 110 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Anastasia Kerr-German in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Biological Psychology p 82-93  Human beings used to think the heart was the seat of the soul. The brain used to be thought of as practically insignificant.  Biological psychologist or neuroscientist- researchers who study the nervous system and behavior o Nervous system- a communication network made up of nerve cells, consisting of the brain, spinal cord and more  Neurons- nerve cells designed to communicate with each other. Our brains have 100 billion of them. o In the book the “Node of Ranvier” is simply referred to as a “node”. These are gaps in the myelin sheath which help speed up the transmission of the impulse o Soma or cell body- makes new cell components, any damage to the cell body kills the cell o Dendrites- Receivers of information o Axons- transmitters of information  Axons terminal- knob at the end of the axon  Synaptic Vesicles- tiny spheres in the axon terminal that contain neurotransmitters  Neurotransmitters- chemical messages that Neurons use to communicate o Synapse- fluid-filled space between neurons (at the end of the axon terminal) where neurotransmitters travel  Synaptic cleft- gap where the neurotransmitters are released, surrounded by small bits of membrane on each side  Sir Charles Sherrington was the first to guess, in 1906, that these existed. His guess was later proved correct.  Glial cells- glue cells surrounding neurons o Treating the glial cells may assist with depression, schizophrenia, inflammation, chronic pain, Alzheimers and other degenerative conditions. o Astrocytes- the most common glial cell  Communicate with neurons, increase reliability of transmitted signals from neurons, control blood flow and are vital to the development of an embryo.  There are a huge number of these in the blood-brain barrier  Blood-brain barrier- fatty coating that envelops the tiny blood vessels in the brain, helping keep large molecules, highly-charged particles and some molecules that dissolve in water out o Oligodendrocyte- 2  Promotes new connections among neurons, aids in healing, produces myelin sheath  Myelin sheath- insulation around axon on neuron o In Multiple Sclerosis this sheath is progressively worn away, causing a mess of signals in the sufferers head (physical and emotional problems result)  Electrodes- used to measure potential difference in electrical charge  Resting potential- when no neurotransmitters act on a neuron. There will be a higher count of negative particles inside than outside the neuron.  Threshold- when the charge inside the neuron reaches a high enough level, compared to the outside  Action potential- abrupt waves of electric discharge triggered by a change in charge inside the axon. Neuron is firing. When a charge reaches the axon terminal, neurotransmitters (chemicals) are released into the synapse.  Refractory period- after the action potential, a brief pause, limiting the maximal firing rate o Maximal firing rate- fastest rate that a neuron can fire, a reload  Receptor Sites- “lock” on the dendrites into which the neurotransmitters (key) can be inserted. These Receptor sites are specific to which kind of neurotransmitter they will receive.  Reuptake- when the neurotransmitters is sucked back up into the axon terminal. Recycling the neurotransmitter.  Neurotransmitters- chemical messengers that excite or inhibit the nervous system o Glutamate- the most common neurotransmitter. Excites neurons. Associated with learning and memory. High levels may 3 contribute to schizophrenia and other disorders because too much can damage neural receptors. o Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)- most common inhibitory transmitter (alcohol increases this along w/ some anxiety meds) o Acetylcholine- muscle contraction, cortical arousal (losing this contributes to alzeimers) o Monoamines- neurotransmitters with one amino acid  Norephinephrine- brain arousal, mood, hunger and sleep  (ADHD med school raise this, this is why my ADHD child hardly eats when she takes her medicine)  Dopamine- motor function and reward (goals, jokes, sex)  Seratonin- mood, temperature regulation, aggression, sleep cycle o Neuropeptides-short strings of amino acids, more specialized than neurotransmitters  Endorphins- pain reduction (morphine, opiods)  Anandamine- pain reduction, increase in appetite (marijuana)  Psychoactive drugs- interact with neurotransmitter systems and affect mood, arousal and behavior o Agonists- drugs that increase receptor site activity  Ex: morphine and codeine reduce our response to pain by bonding with opioid receptors o Antagonists- drugs that decrease receptor site activity  Ex: drugs that treat schizophrenia block dopamine from binding  Neural plasticity- nervous systems ability to change o There are 4 major ways the brain changes: 4  Growth of dendrites and axons  Synaptogenesis- forming new synapses  Pruning- death of neurons and retraction of axons that aren’t useful. As much as 70% of neurons can die off!  Myeliniation- insulation of axons with myelin sheath  Hardwired- when brain circuits don’t change at all (very few are actually like this)  Potentiaton- when synapses perform better with stronger, prolonged excitement  Structural plasticity- ability of the neuron to change shape  Stem cells- cells that can become any type of cell o Can be used in gene therapy to give the patient replacement genes  Neurogenesis- creating new neurons in an adult brain 5


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