ANT 215 Week 4 Notes
ANT 215 Week 4 Notes ANT 215
Popular in Origins of Civilization
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brandon Czowski on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 215 at Grand Valley State University taught by Jeff Chivis in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Origins of Civilization in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
European Neolithic (7000-3000/2000) Mesolithic of Europe: Dramatic shift in temperature, still have H/G but concentrated by sea shores, river valleys, forest clearings Combine hunting with reliance of fishing/plants (this pattern was successful) Neolothic (6500 BC) Introduction of agriculture In 6500 BC; farming comes from southeast Asia 8500 ya; colonizing farmers (fertile crescent) moving towards Europe (Greece, southern areas) Spread of agriculture: span of 30 years, farmers spreading all over to eastern/western fringes of land by 4000 BC; this movement occurs while still utilizing hunter-gatherer lifestyle; increase population, increase surplus, more likely for conflict Beer hypothesis: why the h/g groups there developed farming; t hey would have accidently developed by creating brews that use natural yeast to make beer Megaliths: most famous Stonehenge; also form of burials Spread to Europe: migration from SW Asia to Europe; independent inventing, h/g obtaining own practices; diffusion—borrowing of information between two societies, ideas, technology Ice Man Movie 9/1991: body of man coming from ice Body was carbon-dated to 5300 years ago Scientists decided to defrost the body; it could be damaged by human bacteria from the nurses or from the frozen body (could be released when thawed) Identified shoe that was left on the frozen body (grass/skin/fur) Had knife, bow, and arrows (flint heads), copper headed axe (proof of ability to craft metals) Found with unfinished equipment: arrows with no heads X-rays lead to finding of arrow head in the back of Ice Man Bled to death very quickly Physical aspects: softer hands—herder, tattoos, muscle strength in legs Copper-axe makes people believe he had some type of significance, the weapon itself was very symbolic to power Likely he was running days before his death from pollen found in intestines and throat; conifer and other pollen meaning he went up down and back up the mountain to his death; right hand had deep cut, possibly from hand to hand combat with knife The fact that the arrow was removed but the symbolic axe was left suggests that caution was being taken by the killer to not be identified Blood was found in the blood matter of the brain, suggesting he was hit before dying, last moments must have been traumatic After doctor examined scan of body, noticed hallow organ (stomach), but it was not in the normal place because of his position, it ended up much higher than normal; found stomach and located food within it (ibex—wild goat, and earliest grains) Indicates that people were just making the transition, with some development of growing own food Found lymes diseases DNA in the DNA of ice-man Swelling in the knee indicates arthritis DNA markers revealed he had brown eyes Had DNA marker for heart disease: Calcium deposits in arteries indicates heart disease 2 Genes indicate lactose intolerance: was able to early in life but he could not as an adult Ate very large meal, balanced of meat and plants; the large meal that was left in his stomach does not suggest he was on the run Convinced the man was killed by someone he knew, possibly from the same group he belonged too, never saw it coming as it was from behind 3
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