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exam 2

by: DaJavon Swingler
DaJavon Swingler

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These notes cover exam 2.
Intro to Sociology
Gregory Maddox
Class Notes
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by DaJavon Swingler on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 108 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Gregory Maddox in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Chapter 4 Chapter 5­ Social structure and society Social Structure – the underlying pattern of social relationships . . .  the order the stability to  which we become accustomed. We patter our social relationships through social structure to be more predictive easier to  navigate. Statuses usually cause people to behave in orderly and predictable ways. Statuses a position within a social structure  Ascribed Statuses­ assigned ay birth(Gender, age—princess, prince)  Achieved Statuses­earned or chosen(spouse ,parent)  Status set­ all the statuses that an individual occupies at a particular time.  Master status­ one status affects/influences most other aspects of a person’s life. Roles­culturally defined rights and obligations attached to social statuses: the expected behaviors attached to a status Role sets­all of the roles that are attached to a single status. The roles of one status ate matched with the roles of their statuses through rights and obligations. Role Conflict­occurs when role performance in one status clashes with role performance in  another status. Role strain­ occurs when the role of a single status are inconsistent.  The Zimbardo Experiment  The experiment was designed to observe the behavior of people without record of crime  or violence in a mock “person”.  Zimbardo was amazed at the rapidity with which statuses were adopted and roles fulfilled by “liberal” college students randomly assigned to play prisoners and guards. Role Performance­ occurs when roles are put into action though social interaction. Social Interactions is the process of two or more persons influencing each others  behavior. According to Goffman, statuses are analogous to the parts of a play and roles the script. Modernization­entails the broader social changes that accompany economic development based  on industrialization. According to modernization theory, the changes associated with modernatizaiton are the results  of an evoluntionary process by which societiews become increasingly complex.  Border societal changes that accompany modernization  Population growth  Life expectancy increases  Death rate declinews  Urbanization Modernization brings expanded upper and middle class with more emphasis placed on personal  achievement.  Modernization promotes political democracy.  Modernization transfer education from the family to formal schooling.  Modernization affects family life. Convergence vs. Divergence  Advocates of convergence foresee the development of social and cultural similarities  among modernizing nations.  This lead to the creation of a global culture­ a homogenized way of life spread across the  globe.  Supporters of divergence see the persistence of cultural differnces among modernizing  societies as a result of intervening idiosyncratic social and cultural forces in the move  toward modernization. Globalization­is the process by which increasingly permeable geographical boundaries lead  different societies to share in common some economic political and social araangements. World System Theory­ the pattern of a nations deleopment hinges on its place in the world  economy. Postmodernism  Contains within it a critique of modernism on the grounds that its benefits are enjoyed by  some to the detriment of other.  Questions the key assumptions of modernism.  Emphasis the domination of the weak by the strong.  Questions the exsisstence of an ultimate objective truths. Chapter 6­Groups and organizations Group  Is composed of people who are in contact with one another: share some ways of thinking, feelings, and behaving; take one another’s behavior into account.  Characteristics, groups play an important role in their participants as well as influence the societies in which they exist. Types of groups  Social Category­ people who share a social characteristic. (Tax payer, women, and  college student)  Social aggregate­ people who happen to be at the same place at the same time. Primary Groups  Is composed of people who are emotionally close, know one another well, and seek one  another’s company.  These groups are characterized by relationships that are intimate, personal, caring, and  fulfilling.  Conditions for having a primary relationship small group size, face to face contact,  continuous contact. Secondary Groups  People come together to accomplish a specific purpose.  These groups are in personal and goal oriented involves only some of the segments of its  members lives.  Become sittings for primary relationships. Reference Groups  Individuals use various groups to evaluate themselves and to acquire attitdes, beliefs,  values, and norms. (These groups are our reference groups.)  In groups: the groups with in which one had membership encourages intense  identification and loyalty.  Out groups: groups of which one is not a member. The in group members feel opposition  and competition.  Group Boundaries  Formations and maintenance of in group and out groups depends on the establishments  and protection of group boundaries.  Clashes with outsiders, symbols, certain words, and rituals, etc. Social Networks  A web of social relationships that joins a person to other people and groups.  Provides a sense of belonging and social support such as help in the job market. 6 degrees of separation  Cooperation  Conflict  Social Exchange  Coercion  Conformity The business groups  Most groups are designed to accomplish certain tasks. Two problems of groups  Instrumental problems: those that are directly related to achieving the goals of the group.  Social Emotional Problems: involving individual satisfaction, disagreement and other  related matters that inimitably.  Whenever individuals try to coordinate their activities. Leadership in Groups   Willingness to accept consequences of decisions and action. Decisions and groups – group decisions  Group Think: Situations in which pressures towards uniformity discourages members of  a group from expressing reservations about group discussions.   Formal organizations: a type of secondary groups that deliberately created to achieve one  or more specific goal.  Citizens of modern societies have become highly dependent on large organizations.  Bureaucracy : a formal organization based on rationality and efficiency. Major characteristics or Bureaucracy 1. If division of labor based on the principle of specialization. 2. A hierarchy of authority. 3. Organizational affords are based on a system of rules of procedures. 4. Members of the organization, maintain written records of their organizational activities. 5. Statuses in the organization, especially management ones, are considered full time jobs. 6. Relationships in the organizations are impersonal, devoid of favoritism.  7. Employees of bureaucratic organizations do not own their positions. 4 Principles 1. Efficiency 2. Predictability 3. Calculability 4. Non­Humans technology  Advantages of bureaucracy  Efficiency  Productivity  Reduction of error Informal Organization: a group (within formal organization) guided by unofficial norms, rituals,  and sentiments that are not part of the formal organization. Iron Law Of oligarchy: formulated b Robert Michel’s, the iron law of oligarachy states that  power tends to become increasingly concentrated in the hands of few members of any  organization. Organization & Oligarchy 1. Organizations need a hierarchy of authority to delegate decision making. 2. Advantages had by leaders at the top of their hierarchy allow them to consolidate their  power. 3. Encourage by the characteristics of the followers. Non elites believe that their leaders are  more articulate, etc. Race, Ethnicity, gender and social class in organizations  By the nature of organizations, power is concentrated in relatively few positions at the  top (generally white men from higher social class).  Glass ceiling: reflects that fact that so few women and minorities get promoted to these  more powerful (higher) positions. Organizations and their environments   The organizational environment consist of all the forces outside an organization that exert an actual or potential influence on the organization.  An inter organization relationship is a pattern of interaction among authorized  representatives of two or more formally independent organizations. Chapter 3 – Culture Culture consist of material objects, patterns of thinking, feeling, and behaving passed from  generation to generation. ­a peoples entire way of life. ­A society is a group of people living within defined territorial borders who share a culture. ­Culture provides the blueprints for guiding people in their relationships within society. Three Dimesions of culture 1. Material­ consists of the concrete, tangible aspects of a culture. 2. Cognitice­ refers to the complex of ideas and knowledge: includes language , beliefs. 3. Normative­consists of the standards for appropriate behavior for a group. Material culture­ concrete, tangible objects within culture. ­Artifcats have no meanings or use apart from the meanings people give it. Beliefs­ ideas concerning the nature of reality Normative Dimensions of culture ­Moral point of view are reflected in cultural norms… all those rules. (Good bad, right wrong)  Change throughtout time & from culture to culture. Types of Norms 1. Folkways­ rules that cover customary ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving. (Nomrs  that have little or no moral significant.) (If notms are not followed, the sanctions are very  minor.) 2. More MOR­ays)­norms/rules with moral significance.(Seen as vital to the wellbeing of  society.)(Violations evoke strong disapproval.) 3. Taboo­a type of more that is extremely serious. (incest,cannibalism) 4. Laws­norms that are formally defined and enforced by officials. (Consciously created and enforced…specify definitions & punishments for violations.) Mores & taboos are important sources of laws. Enforcement of Norms 1. Sanctions­rewards/punishments used to encourage conformity to norms. (Formal  sanctions­ given only by officially designed persons.)(Informal Sanctions­ can be applied  by most members of society.) What are values? Values­ broad cultural principles that many people in a society consider desirable. (They do not  specify precisely what to think, feel, or behave.) American Values Achievement and success Activity and work Efficiency and practically Equality Democracy Group Superiority  Ideal & Real Culture Ideal­ cultural guidelines publicly embraced by members of society. Real­ actual behavior patterns exhibited by member of society. Culture as a tool kit ­Culture can be view as a “tool kit”: symbols, stories, rituals, and worldviews that people  can use in different configurations to solve different kinds of problems. ­Whose tools? Where do  we get them? Are tools used similarly or differently? Language and culture The creation and transmissions of culture depends heavily on the capacity to develop symbols. ­Symbols – things that stand for, or represent, something else. ­Language­ a system of interrelated symbols (words) through which a group of people ate able to communicate and share information. Hypothesis of Linguistic relativity ­ Our perception of reality is at the mercy of the words and grammatical rules of our language. ­ Language shapes our reality ­ Studies demonstrate that language significantly shapes thought. Chapter 7­ Deviance and Social Control Deviance­behavior outside the normal range of social expectations.  Any behavior that departs from societal or groups norms.  Negative Deviance­involves behavior that underconforms to accepted norms.  Negative deviants reject the norms.  Positive deviance­encompass behavior that overconforms to social expectations.  Positive deviants conform to norms in and unbalanced way.  Deviance is a matter of social definition. ( socially constructed) (Because norms vary  from group to group, society to society) Deviance­ 3 Circumstances 1. Social status and power of individuals involved. 2. Social context in which the behavior occurs. 3. The historical period in which the behavior takes place. Question for consideration  Consider the doing research: William Chambliss­saints and roughnecks discussion in the  text. Forms of social control  Social Control­ means for promoting conformity to norms.  External Control­exist outside the individual; based on sanctions designed to encourage  desired behavior. (Informal –gossip, ridicule.)(formal­prison, medals)  Internal control­lies within the individual; self­imposed; acquired during socialization. Functionalist View of deviance 1. Deviance as a dysfunction:  Encourages social disorder  Erodes trust  Encourages further nonconformity in others  Diverts resources from other social needs. 2. Deviance as a function:  Helps clarify norms & offers a safety value.  Increase social unity & brings about needed social change. Strain theory  Merton’s strain theory adapted Durkheim’s concept of anomie  Anomie­social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting, or absent.  Strain theory­ deviance is most likely to occur when there is a discrepancy between a  culturally prescribed goal (economic, success) and a legitimate means of obtaining it  (education, work). Responses to Strain  Conformity­accepting goals & pursuing through legitimate means of achievement  Innovation­accepting goals but substitutes other means of achieving them  Ritualism­rejecting goals but accepts legitimate means of achieving them anyway  Retreatism­rejecting goals and rejecting means of achieving the goals.  Rebellion­Substitutes new goals and sibstitutes new means of achieving them. Evaluation of Strain Theory  Strain theory   Has had great staying power due to its applicability to juvenile delinquency and crime.  It assumes a consensus in values(everyone values success in economic terms)  It does not explain an individual’s preference for one mode of adaption to another. Conflict Theory   This theory purports conformity to social norms depends on a strong bond between  individuals and society.  Social bonds control the behavior of people; it is the social bond that prevents deviance  from occurring. Basic elements of control theory  Attachment – the stronger the attachment, the more likelihood of c conformity.  Commitment­ the greater the ones commitment to legitimate social goals such as  educational attainment and occupational success, the more likely one is to conform.  Involvement­ participation in legitimate social activities increase the probability. Symbolic interactionist Why deviance occurs  Deviance transmission theory contends deviance is learned, just like any other aspect of  culture.  Differential association theory states deviant behavior is learned principally in primary  groups. (“Birds of a feather flock together.”) What is deviance?  Labeling theory views an act as deviant only if other people respond to as if it were  deviant. Labeling theory  Primary Deviance­a person engages in an isolated act of defiance. (The saints.)  Secondary Deviance­acts of deviance become part of one’s lifestyle and personal  identity. (The Roughnecks.) Labeling theory concepts  Stigma­an undesirable characteristic or label used by others to dent the deviant full social  acceptance. Mental Illness and labeling theory  Labeling theory views mental illness through social interactions­other responds to us &  we interpret what those responses mean.  Mental illness is considered a matter of social definition.  Psychiatrist Szasz sees mental disorder behaviors as adaptions to interaction­based  stresses threatening to overwhelm an individual. Conflict Theory of Deviance  Emphasizes social inequality a power differentials.  Group norms and the definition of deviant are determined by most powerful members of  a society. Conflict Perspective of deviance  Relates to capitalism, pointing to the relationship between race, ethnicity, & crime. Race, Ethnicity, & crime  Statistics show that African Americans and Latinos are dealt with more harshly than  whites­from arrest through indictment, conviction, sentencing, and parole. Occupational and corporate crime  White Collar crime is any crime committed by respectable and high status people in the  course of their occupation.  Occupational crime­illegal acts by people either in their employment or in their personal  financial pursuits.  Corporate crime­crime committed on behalf of organization. Crime in the US  Crime is defined as acts in violation of the law.  Data comes from the Uniform Crime Report and National Crime Victimization Survey. Juvenile crime   Refers to violations of the law committed by those less than eighteen years of age.  Juvenile offenders are the third largest category of criminals in the US.  Juvenile crime reached its lowest level in a decade in2001. Several factors account for  this 1. A decade in the demand for crack cocaine 2. Gangs reached truces 3. Police clamped down on illegal guns 4. Repeat juvenile offenders have been given stiffer sentences. Global Crime The US has more violent crime than other industrialized countries  –highest number of murders, rapes and robberies. According to the United States Survey of Crime (1996­2006) Global Terrorism Terrorism the illegal use of violence to intimidate a government or group or individual in  pursuit of political, religion economic, or social goals. Transnational terrorism­involves terrorist in one country committing terrorist acts against  target in another country. Domestic terrorism­ Terrorism occurs under certain social conditions  In political weak states or in states that have undergone years of political violence  In states with a foreign occupier  In states with widespread racial or ethnic discrimination  In the presence of extreme secular or religious ideologies. Crime control in the US (a criminal justice system may draw on four approaches to punish)  Deterrence­emphasizes intimidation, using threat of punishment to discourage crime.  Retribution­criminals pay compensation equal to their offenses against society.  Incarceration­removes criminals from society  Rehabilitation­attempts to resocialize criminals.


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