Note for ANTHRO 102 at UMass
Note for ANTHRO 102 at UMass
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Anthropology 102 Archaeology and Prehistory Fall 2010 STUDY GUIDE for FINAL EXAM 0 THE FINAL EXAM WILL TAKE PLACE ON MONDAY DECEMBER 13 400600 IN THOMPSON HALL ROOM 102 0 THE EXAM WILL CONSIST OF 50 MULTIPLE GUESS QUESTIONS 0 NOT ALL OF THE MATERIAL ON TIHS STUDY GUIDE WILL APPEAR ON THE FINAL EXAM You are responsible for all material covered in lecture from November 15 onward and discussion sections In particular review your discussion section notes on information from the human skeleton and your handouts from lectures These are all posted on Spark In the text be sure to read the following sections Concepts and Images and Ideas Chapter 5Bone Chemistry and Prehistoric Subsistence The Human Skeleton Chapter 6 Explaining the Origins of Agriculture Wheat Barley Pigs Goats and Sheep Archaeobotany Archaeozoology Chapter 7 Monumental Architecture Chapter 10 Pyramids Theories of State Development Chapter 11 The Megaliths of Western Europe SITES and PLACES For each of the following sites or areas you should know WHERE it is at least as precise as continent or region e g Europe Near East China WHEN it was occupied at least approximately WHAT its signi cant characteristics are and WHY it is signi cant Linformation in lecture Tinformation in Images 0fthe Past Fertile Crescent L T Beidha L Skara Brae L Ain Mallaha T Ali Kosh L Maes Howe L Abu Hureyra T Catalhoyl39ik T Cahokia L T Jericho T Stonehenge LT Mesopotamia LT Giza T Newgrange L Knossos LT The Levant LT Know the DEFINITION AND THE SIGNIFICANCE of the following terms farming horticulture agriculture threshing winnowing domestication aurochs Schlep Effect preadaptations sickle blade quem spindle whorl pollen phytolith spot demand mud brick tell Natu an culture lunate obsidian ceramic Neolithic beer hierarchical society chiefdom state redistribution market sumptuary goods Minoans bone fusion fusion of the epiphyses enamel hypoplasia trephination porotic hyperostosis Harris lines dental caries cranial deformation megalith cairn barrow ritual landscape QUESTIONS TO HELP YOU STUDY What is the threepart de nition of farming given in class What important aspects of farming does this de nition emphasize What are two problems inherent in farming and how do horticulture and agriculture differ in the way they address these problems What are the implications of those differences for human societies What makes an animal or plant truly domesticated What are some of the places in which plants and animals are domesticated What are the crops andor food animals associated with these areas What was the rst animal to be domesticated What speci c characteristics made wild dogs goats sheep cattle pigs chickens wheat and barley preadapted for domestication What are some of the kinds of evidence archaeologists have used to determine whether plants or animals were domesticated What are the advantages and potential drawbacks of each kind of evidence How might the population structure of animals consumed at an archaeological site indicate whether the animals were wild or domesticated What kinds of information can be obtained through the study of human skeletal remains How can archaeologists determine the age at death and sex of an individual from the person s skeleton How can bones be used to make inferences about demography disease subsistence diet and nutrition work ritual and social organization What are some of the most important consequences of farming and the domestication of plants and or animals for humans Explain each consequence What relationship is there if any between craft specialization innovation trade and leisure time among farmers What factors may be important in explaining why people adopted or developed farming What broadly characterizes quottribesquot today in terms of subsistence size social organization and exchange How should we expect tribes to differ from bands archaeologically in terms of settlement pattern sites material culture and burials How do the Natu an sites of the Levant eg Ain Mallaha Abu Hureyra Jericho Beidha Ali Kosh Catalhoyl39ik and Neolithic sites of the British Islaes eg Stonehenge Newgrange Skara Brae conform to or differ from these expectations What changes in subsistence settlement technology and social organization happened in the Natu an and Neolithic cultures of the Near East What burial practices characterize many Natu an and Neolithic sites in the Near East and what do the burial practices suggest about these societies What role did beer play in the development of farming and urban society in the Near East What are some important differences between Tribes and Chiefdoms or States How should we expect chiefdoms and states to differ from tribes archaeologically How do the sites of Cahokia and Knossos conform to or differ from these expectations In what six or seven areas depending on whether you lump together or split apart do states arise independently What purposes may be served by monumental architecture and public works What are potential consequences of the use of sumptuary goods What are some of the de ning characteristics of the Minoans What event appears to have caused the disintegration of Minoan society What are some of the prime mover factors that may account for the development of states What are the integrative and coercive models of state formation and function Images 0fthe Past pp 493 496 What elements comprised the ritual landscape of the British Isles during the Neolithic period
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