Chemistry 107 - Ch. 2 Notes
Chemistry 107 - Ch. 2 Notes CHEM 107
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kalia Notetaker on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 107 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Richard Perkins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Ch. 2 Notes “Atoms, Molecules, and Ions” Dalton’s atomic Theory (1808) – first to come up w/ suggestion about chemical reactions; 1. Elements are composed of extremely small particles called atoms 2. All atoms of a given element are identical, having same since, mass and chem. properties 3. Compounds are composed of atoms of more than one element. 4. Chemical reaction involves separation, combination, or rearrangement of atoms, it does not result in destruction or creation Rutherford’s Experiment: 1. Atoms positive charge is concentrated in nucleus 2. Proton has opposite (+) charge of electron (-) 3. Mass of p is 1840 x mass of e (1.67 x Isotopes of hydrogen – number of protons determines element Hydrogen has one proton – usually has one proton & one electron H, o1e pro one neutron 2 3 and one elec 1H, or one pro 2 neutrons and one elec 1H o Isotopes – atoms of the same element X with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei A over Z (X) Atomic number Z = # of protons in nucleus o Mass number A = # of pro + # of neu o 11 20Na - 11p 11e 9n *11 on bottom* o 11 22Na – 11p 11e 11n o 17O (17 on top) – 8p 8e 9n o Carbon-14 6p 6e 8n Periodic Tables – rows across Periods columns up and down Groups o Group 1: alkali metal 2. Alkaline earth metal 17. Halogen 18. Noble Gas o Metals-left Metalloids – small right ride Nonmetals – right side Molecule – an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical forces o Diatomic contains only two atoms Ex: H – n2t a compound HCl – compound Flurorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen o Polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms Ex: O , H O,3NH 2 3 Ion – an atoms, or group of atoms that has a net + or – charge + o Cation – positive charge by losing one or more electrons Na o Anion – negative ion by gaining one or more electrons Cl - o Monatomic ion – contains only one atom Ex: Na , Cl , Ca- 2+ - o Polyatomic ion – contains more than one atom Ex: OH (Hydroxide), NH ,4NO 3- o Group 1- 1+ ions 2 - 2+ ions 13 – 3+ (Al) 14 – 4 ions- 15 – 3 ions 16 – 2-ions 17 – 1-ions Formulas and Models (2.6) o Molecular Formula – Hydrogen (H ) Wa2er (H O) 2 o Structural Formula – H – H H – O – H o MF – shows exact @ of atoms of element in the smallest unit of a substance o Empirical F. – shows the simplest whole-number ration of the atoms in substance (simplified) C6H12)6 = CH2O (divided all by 6) Ionic compounds – consist of a combination of cations and anions o Formula is usually the same as EF, sum of charges on cation(s) and anion(s) in each formula unit must equal zero NaCl – no molecule o Formulas – all charges add up to be zero o Metal and nonmetal... far left and far right of periodic tabole o Molecular – just nonmetals Chemical nomenclature – ionic: metal + nonmetal, anion (nm) add “ide” to element name, BaCl Bar2um and Chlorine … Barium Chloride K O Potassi2m and Oxygen … Potassium Oxide Mg(OH) Magnesium Hydroxide KNO 2 3 Potassium Nitrate Molecular compounds – nonmetals + metalloids, common names H O NH 2 3 CH ,4element furthest to the left in a period and closest to the bottom of a group on periodic table is placed first in formula, if more than one compound can be formed from the same elements use prefixes o HI – Hydrogen and Iodine hydrogen iodide o NF 3 not ionic, Nitrogen and Fluorine nitrogen trifluoride o SO 2ulfur dioxide o N 2l 4 dinitrogen tetrachloride o Nitrogen dioxide NO 2 o N 0 dinitrogen monoxide 2 o SiCl4Silicon tetrachloride o P 4 10tetre o Carbon disulfide – CaS 2 o Disilicon hexabromide Si Br2 6 A to j … top to bottom + Acid – substance that yields hydrogen ion (H ) when dissolved in water o Oxoacid – an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen and another element - Base – substance that yields hydroxide ion (OH ) when dissolved in water o NaOH sodiym hydroxide o KOH potassium hydroxide Hydrates – compounds (ionic) that have a specific number of water molecules attached to them Organic chemistry – branch of chem that deals with carbon coumpounds
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