Science of Human Nutrition
Science of Human Nutrition 23511
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layne Henwood on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 23511 at Kent State University taught by Carmen Blakely-Adams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Science of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Monday Poor Nutrition Results from InadequateExcessive Intakes All nutrients have a speci c range of the ideal intake In United States people are very consumed with their weight Can be very thin and still undernourished Death occurs when there is toxicity obesity too much but also when there are de ciencies very skinny both are considered malnourishment Adaptive Mechanisms Manage Fluctuation in Nutrient lntake Our bodies are machines When body starts breaking down you do not realize it at rst our bodies are smart and can compensate for themselves Malnutrition Not always the way you look Need to ensure our bodies are healthy on the inside Alcoholism can lead to malnutrition 0 Main goal is to drink which has no nutrients and they can become vitamin de cient Genetic condition heart failure retain abnormal amounts of uid Key Terms Acute Disease 0 Sudden never had a problem before then suddenly do 0 Usually goes away but not always Chronic Disease 0 Long lasting disease 0 Can be treated can not always be cured 0 Slow developing 0 Ex Heart disease cancer diabetes high blood pressure Adequacy variety and balance 0 Adequacy getting the essential amount of nutrients you need to keep your body running properly 0 Variety getting a variety of vitamins and nutrients from different types of foods 0 Balance not too much and not too little EnergyDense foods 0 Lot of calories per weight 0 Can still have vitamins and minerals EmptyCalorie foods 0 Excess amount of calories compared to nutrients 0 Ex pop cookies alcohol candy sugar NutrientDense foods 0 Want more of these in your diet 0 Want these foods to overweigh the energydense and emptycalorie foods 0 Ex Fruits veggies lean meats whole grains lnside story of nutrition and health The health and tness of human body depending on different factors 0 Genetic traits diseases 0 Environmental and lifestyle factors 0 Diet Conditions that Contribute to Death 10 of health care is related to death Do you go to the doctor 0 Could have a chronic disease and never know 0 Age is not an insurance plan 20 is dedicated to environmental exposures O Unhealthy drinking water 0 Smog Nutritional State of the Nation Lifestyle related chronic diseases are a major cause of death 0 Heart disease cancer stroke diabetes Alzheimer39s kidney disease Nutrition can play a part in cancer 0 High fat intake can lead to intestinal cancer Clogged arteries in brain can lead to Alzheimer39s disease Kidney disease is 9th leading cause of death in the US 0 5th leading cause in African American women Key Terms Diabetes 0 Type 1 Body has no insulin at all Usually occurring in young people 0 Type 2 Have some insulin but just not enough Usually people over the age of 4045 0 Gestational Diabetes Women who develop diabetes during their pregnancy Can be due to genetics age obesity some women just develop it Once baby is born usually it goes back to normal 0 When a person has elevated glucose levels Do not have enough insulin Hypertension 0 High blood pressure 0 Greater than 14090 mmHg 0 Silent killer 0 Most people know someone with high blood pressure 0 Can look ne on the outside and body be struggling on the inside Stroke cerebral vascular accident 0 TlA very mind stroke Go into a deep stare words become slurred will be okay afterwards O Occur when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures or becomes blocked cutting off blood supply toa a portion of the brain Alzheimer39s Disease 0 Brain disease 0 Most common form of dementia 0 Causes memory loss of recent events and distant events 0 Can forget things like to feed yourself bathe yourself etc Wednesday Leading Causes of Death in US Heart disease is leading cause of death 0 Not only in US but all over the world 0 Diet eating a lot of fast food too much butter saturated fats etc Cancer is second leading cause 0 Diet lack of nutrients lack of ber Stroke is number three Kidney disease is related to nutrition 0 Most people have high blood pressure or are diabetic It is usually not in control 0 De nitely diet related 0 The food they eat can cause death if it is not what they need Key Terms Osteoporosis 0 Bones become fragile and susceptible to fracture 0 Due to a lack of calcium 0 More likely to attack women who are very thin or have had an eating disorder In ammation 0 First response of the body39s immune system to infectious agents toxins or irritants O In ammatory process is a normal process Ex When you have a fever your body goes through this 0 Want in ammation Chronic In ammation O Lowgrade in ammation lasting weeks to years 0 Body is not getting better 0 Continuously going through in ammatory process 0 Your body can not x what is wrong 0 Damages lipids cells and tissues 0 Do not want chronic in ammation Oxidative Stress O Occurs when cells are exposed to more oxidizing molecules 0 Smoke and pollutants Free radicals 0 Everybody has cancer cells but not all develop Your health has an impact on whether or not they develop Antioxidants 0 Chemical substances that preventrepair damage to cells caused by oxidizing agents such as pollutants ozone smoke and reactive oxygen DiseaseDisorder Linked to Diet Heart Disease 0 High saturated and trans fat and cholesterol intake 0 Low vegetablefruit intake 0 Low whole grain intake 0 Excessive body fat Cancer 0 Low vegetable and fruit intake 0 Excessive body fat or alcohol intake 0 Regular consumption of processed meat Stroke 0 Low vegetable and fruit intake 0 High animal fat diet 0 Excessive alcohol intake Diabetes 0 Excessive body fat 0 Low vegetablefruit intake 0 High saturated fat energydense and nutrientpoor intake Chronic in ammation 0 Smoking 0 Taking in a lot of fat and calories Food In ammation and Oxidative Stress Getting adequate fruits and vegetable Red wine 0 One glass if female 0 Two glasses if male Nuts 0 Good in moderation Olive oil 0 Good in moderation Q Do not fry things in olive oil Dark chocolate 0 Not as bad as normal chocolate 0 Very small amount Importance of food Choice Americans tend to choose energydense nutrientpoor foods 0 Including processed foods that pose great risks to our health 0 Cheeseburgers Whole grain bun or not bun at all Use lettuce as a bun Use less condiments or lowfat condiments 0 Pizza Must crust out of cauli ower Put vegetables on it bell peppers onions etc Use lowfat cheese or just not as much Lowsodium sauce 0 Banana split Lowfat whipped cream or none at all Replace candied cherries with real ones Frozen yogurt instead of ice cream Take a scoop away do not need 3 Use less chocolate and caramel sauce Put fresh fruit on it instead of sauces 0 Big breakfast Turkey baconsausage instead of normal Egg white instead of whole egg Decrease the amount of bread Use whole wheat bread Use less powdered sugar or use fresh fruit instead Diet and Disease of Western Civilization Chronic disease prevalent in the US and other Western countries have roots in dietary changes over past centuries Did not deep fry food No processed foods No preservatives at all The meat they ate came from animals that were grass fed Everything came from the Earth 0 More vegetables fruits and whole grains Certain can be better now 0 Added nutrients 0 Improved shelflife Power of Prevention amp improving American Diet Reduce baby bottle tooth decay 0 Infants are being fed bottles but mothers are not holding it Q It has natural sugars Q When teeth grow in they become decayed Reduce heart disease obesity cancer etc Increase breast feeding rates 0 Mother wants to be healthy 0 Have to be able to get time off from work if necessary 0 Educate the public People have problems with breast feeding in public 0 Part of nutrition Reduce fats and saturated fats Improve food safety practices and food safety More fruits vegetables and whole grains Increased nutritional education in schools Tracking American Die National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Nationwide food consumption survey 0 What is the relationship between diet and health Total diet study 0 Looking at pesticides and everything that goes into food Calculating Calories Carbohydrates O 4 calories per gram Protein 0 4 calories per gram Fat 0 9 calories per gram Alcohol 7 calories per gram FHday 1 kg 22 lbs 171Ibs 78 kg divide by 22 202 lbs 92 kg divide by 22 98 kg 216 lbs multiply by 22 75 kg 165 lbs multiply by 22 28 grams 1 ounce 16 ounces 1 lbs 1 lb 2 cups Factors In uencing Food Selection Culture Acceptable foods Customs Religious beliefs Food symbolism Food preferences Taste smell color texture temperature Heredity Familiarity Practical considerations Food cost Convenience Availability Level of hunger Health status Nutrition knowledge and beliefs Education Experience Health concerns Nutritional value of foods Attitudes and values Food preferences are Learned Largest impact on food choice Foods develop strong symbolic emotional and cultural meanings Eat certain foods when you are stressed out upset sick etc Choose foods that give us pleasure based on prior learning experiences We reject foods that bring us discomfort guilt or unpleasant memories Symbolic Meaning of Food Status foods Associated with wealth Ex Caviar Comfort foods Associated with good or positive times Discomfort foods Associated with illness or negative times Key Nutrition Concepts and Terms Monday February 1 2016 1059 AM