Note for COMM 222 at UMass
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Comm 222Final Exam Study Guide May 5 2011 Sources for economic support for media systems a General tax revenues commercialadvertisements license fees subscriptions Types of nancial arrangements in different systems and countries a Permissive libertarian i government not involved in daily production doesn t get involved until there are complaints b Paternalistic social responsibility i government encourages the media to create informing and educational content UK India ii Government funded but distinctseparate iii Corporations run for betterment for society c Auth 0ritarian i government completely controls the media and its content China d Pluralistichybridmixed systems i Pluralistic system 1 Conceives of power as distributed across different groups in society shifting over time and issues ii Hybrid System 1 A mix of different government arrangements iii Mixed System 1 Noncommercial AND commercial voices at the center 2 Also about using broadcasting for nonpro t purposes like education etc Commercial Systems a Most commercial TV sells spot ads rather than running singlesponsored shows except as special events b Avails can be as short as 10 seconds or up to 2 minutes with experiments ranging down to 5 seconds i Clustered into interruptions in the programs called breaks or pods ii A typical Primetime network program that runs for 1 hour is actually only 4244 minutes long iii The rest of that hour is lled with promos c Per inquiry ads is a form of direct response marketing in which the advertiser receives free ad time and space while paying only for results In return the advertiser gives up control of where and when the ads will run d Make goods The commercial time given to advertisers either because an advertisement was preempted or did not receive the exposure that had been agreed to and paid for e up front marketInitial purchasing of network television advertising by rms wishing to have optimal selection of available programs reserving advertising time on network television programs when the seasonal schedule is first announced this tactic often requires longer schedules and higher prices f Pre emptive sales i Sort of last minute either with two weeks notice or up right until time of broadcast ii Much higher price g Inventory spots available on a channel h Scatter made throughout TV season supply amp demand strong effect on ad sales i Pods A group of commercials promos or announcements contained in a television program break j Adjacencies Commercial announcements which are next to or adjacent to a program rather than in breaks within the main body of the program Public Service System a Motivated by public service goals rather than by pro t b Philosophymandatemission i US serve public interest convenience or necessity ii UK BBC quotto inform educate and entertainquot c license fees i Primary funding is the license Fee for BBC 1 If you own a TV set you pay a fee yearly ii quotleast worst modelquot least worst of the models out there 1 Caters to the peopleif people don t like what programs they are being given they can stop using the TV and stop paying 2 In a commercial the networks are catering to the advertisers not the audience Cable System a Multi System Operator MSO i Companies that own and operate more than one cable system 1 EX comcast Time Warner Fox etc ii They make money by selling cable services to subscribers and sell ads iii They want you to pay every month iv Churn Turnover of cable subscribers as a result of disconnects and new customers v Roadblocking no matter what channel you turn to you see the same commercial b Tiers of Cable i Separating cable services into groups with a separate fee for each level ii Basic Cable 1 TV channels get a small piece of your check 2 Cable System pays a monthly fee per subscriber to the cable channel it carries iii Premium Channel Cable 1 EX HBO CinemaX Showtime Stargate 2 The extra fee you pay to get these channels is split 5050 between the cable system and the channel a They39re in the business of giving and keeping viewers 3 New competing technologies Modem DVR OnDemand 4 Now in the same business as telephone 5 DBS DirectBroadcast Satellite a SyndeX syndicated exclusively rule 6 Trends in global distribution and production of programming a b IO 109 l950 s80 s US programs dominated the world 1990 s much more M production and international sharing less US dominance and more ways to distribute and share Early 2000 s US programs were rarely seen in primetime no longer most popular programming US resurged in 2006 drama came back instead of reality shows Foreign programming concepts are frequently imported and exported The whole world is one global market US does not import international programs but adopts a license to the right of TV show ideas from other countries eX Ugly Betty is based on Colombian soap opera Y 0 Soy Betty F eo Other countries sell and market programs to other countries American programs are still popular in other countries Globalization means there is a higher demands of programming nationally and internationally 7 Cultural Imperialism a b l960 s80 s other countries concerned that American culture was taking over their media i many aspects of American TV were seen as offensive in Europe 1 spreading consumerism ideals to Europe Free Flow US vs New World Information Order third world position i US culture ruining values and traditions of NWIO cultures 8 CoOpting a Absorbing and assimilating other cultures into one s own culture 9 Legal requirements of broadcast license holders a applicant must be a US citizen or an organization that is free from significant foreign control must meet certain character qualifications the FCC usually looks at things that are directly relevant to the potential future conduct of a potential broadcaster i felonies or misdemeanors could jeopardize applicant holding license 10 Implications of the public interest standard a PICON Public Interest Convenience Or Necessity i Programming MUST provide aspects of this 11 The role of scarcity a notes that the electromagnetic spectrum is limited i only a nite number of broadcast stations can exist in a certain place in a certain time ii too many stations can interfere with one another 1 this means that only a limited number of aspiring broadcasters can be served and that the government must choose from among the potential applicants iii spectrum should not be privately owned instead it is treated like a public resource 12 History of Regulation a Radio Act of 1912 i Limited amateur radio transmitter operators39 use of radio because they claimed it interfered with military and sea communication ii Required amateurs to get a federal license iii Reserved part of radio wave spectrum only for shipping and government use b Radio Act of 1927 i Established the Federal Radio Commission ii Stated that the FRC should grant a license if it determined that quotpublic convenience interest or necessity would be served iii Radio waves not for private uses but for the public c 1934 Communications Act i Created the Federal Communication Commission ii Radios function was to provide citizens with information and means of communication they needed in order to ful ll their role in a democracy d 1996 Telecommunications act i major overhaul biggest change since 1934 ii FinSyn gone 1 Companies start to buy other companies iii Cross ownership restrictions relaxed 1 Could own multiple or all different media formats iv Cross services allowed 1 EX telephone company offering TV v Ownership limits greatly relaxed 13 Neoliberalism a Comes from economic theory b Emphasizes role of market i Way of exchanging money for goods c Trade and the market is the ultimate and fairest arbiter of how wealth is distributed d Free Market little regulation by government as possible i Wants SOME regulations in place but only ones that will bene t them ii Doesn t want people who work for them to be involved in unions or labor groups b c it hinders the free market e People adopt it as an ideology about how culture and society is run f Risks are on the individual 14 GreenWashing a Making super cial changes to company and says it is good for economy b Trying to make company fresh and sustainable by playing on key ideals of public 15 FCC a rules and regulations i serve in the public interest ii deal with indecency iii regulate programs only when there are too many complaints iv Licensing is the primary function and most important method of regulation b Duties of the FCC i issue and renew licenses 1 only grants licenses to stations 2 it doesn t license networks networks own local stations that must have their licenses renewed 3 adjudicationused to settle disputes 16 Self regulation a Have codes written statements of principle that guide the general behavior of those working in a profession 17 History of Broadcasting a Broadcasting i Significant precursors to broadcasting 1 1851 telegraph cable across English Channel 2 1866 telegraph cable across Atlantic Ocean 3 1876 Alexander Graham Bell a Sonic transduceriTELEPHONE b Soundgtelectricalimpulsesgtsound b WIRELESS i Imagined as equivalent to telegraph without wires ii Developed by many people 1 James Clerk Maxwell a Wrote a theoretical paper claiming radio waves existi 1873 2 Heinrich Hertz a Proved that radio waves DO eXist71888 3 Guglielmo Marconi a Made radio iii Hertzian Waves radio waves for wireless telegraphy 1 Wanted to remove cables in pointtopoint communication 2 Don39t travel in straight line though 3 Wireless actually created a connection from one point to many points in nite points a BROADcasting b Marconi didn39t like this but amatuers and hobbyists took advantage i Early 1900s Crystal Radio 1 Amateurs used oatmeal box wires and crystal to pick up different wavelengths sounds and even marconigrams 2 Could also reverse process to produce messages 3 Navy took over all wireless broadcasting a Amateurs shut down i Amateurs very essential to domestication and popularization of wireless as a technology 4 Reginald Fessenden a Realized he needed quotcontinuousquot waves b Created the first quotbroadcastquot in 1906 5 Ernst Alexanders a Built generator 6 Lee Defores quotFather of Radioquot quotGrandfather of Televisionquot a Created the Audion tubetriode i Its function was to tune and amplify radio wave 7 David Sarnoff a Not an inventor but important for corporate history b Teaches himself to speak English c Starts to sell newspapers and creates his own newspaper selling business Received SOS signals from the Titanic 1912 e Becomes 1st president of RCA f First national radio network is created under himiNBC iv Regulation 1 How does government justify making laws a Determined that airwaves belong to the public i Thus government should provide rules just like they have rules about other public areas such as parks ii Public property held in trust for the benefits of the people and the nation their uses licensed only if it goes under conditions that they serve public interest b Selfinterfering radio waves i So people can et equal access to them notjust to the person who has the strongest generator 2 Radio Act of 1912 a Required all transmitters to have licenses b Only had to applyno one could be refused c Gave secretary of commerce NO authority to assign speci c wavelengths d Had nothing to do with broadcasting just had to do with operating radios a Navy gave up control of radio b Forced American Marconi a british company to dissolve in a semifriendly corporate takeover i American Marconi sold to GE WhitingHouse and ATampT c These three companies created the RCA Radio Corporation of America i Crosslicensing agreements 1 Phase 1 19191923 a GE and Whiting House manufacturers b RCA sell receivers c ATampT manufactures and lease transmitters control long lines and phones 2 Radio stations developed only to make radio set more popular a ATampT though of quottoll broadcastingquot gtbuy an hour you could broadcast b Renamed Publicityadvertising i Buy a time to advertise your name v Review 1 9959 Television 0 1950s 1896 marconi registers his patent 1906 DeFores invents Audion tubetriode 1912 First la Radio Act 1916 Samoffwrites quotmusic box memoquot 1917 Navy takes over RadioWWI 1920 KDKA broadcasting explodes TV grows rapidly after FCC freeze end in 1952 Complete with established corporate owners Regulatory structures Even programming Very familiar to radio programs Radio with pictures 0 Timeline Live TV until 1957ampeX created videotape Production moves from New York to LA 39 Prime time color 1966 Half of all Households have color TV by 1972 39 Stereo sound in 1984 39 HDTV plasma LCD screens 12 ofhouseholds have DTV 2008 39 Transition to digital broadcasting 2009 18 History of CableCATV a multi cahnnel Video programming distributor MVPD i Appeared as early as 1948 in rural areas ii Program augmentation iii By Superstations madeforcable programming cable only channels b Cable regulation i Local government could regulate based on cable operators use of public rights of way ii Limit subscription rates iii Can use city property but have to provide to everyone in city no matter the cost iv Have to reserve channels for public interestaccess 1 Aka PEG channels c 1962 FCC used microwave ready licenses to begin regulating cable industry i MUST CARRY RULE Required cable subscribers with ALL area broadcast stations ii Required operators to avoid duplicating network programs the same day a network offered them iii ANTILEAP FROGGING Required cable systems importing distant signals to select those originating closest to community iv No new signals could be imported into any of the top 100 TV broadcast markets without a hearing on economic impacts d Mid 1970s i Courts congress and FCC would begin Deregulating cable industry ii Leads to rapid growth of cable industry iii FCC quotopenskiesquot policy allowed for more use of domsatsoas broadcast relays iv Mid 1979 FCC deregulated tv receiver only TVRO antennas used to pick up signals v Much of early cable programming was rebroadcast or repurposed broadcast programming 19 Programming strategies amp assumptions a Strategies i searching out and acquiring program materials ii tting them into a coherent service b 2 main aspects i Finding and developing shows ii Scheduling them 20 History of cableCATV 21 a b c d Community Antenna Television 1950 s bringing TV to places with no reception E San DiegoLA independent stations w New Yorkto get better reception special programscable only for first time program only shown on cable not broadcast to everyone HDTV i idea came in 1987 but didn t happen until June 2009 ii broadcasters given 6 MHz for free iii FCC took back the extra spectrum 1 HD channels can fit a bunch in one analogue channel Multiple System Operates MSO i number dropping over the years because big MSO s are buying smaller MSO s l Comcast is the largest MSO Cable Act of 1984 i massive deregulation of cable cable grew niche services gradually died out ii could drop weak signals iii eliminated public access requirements iv deregulated monthly rates See saw of Cable Regulations i 1966 FCC restricts cable to protect networks ii 1977 restrictions loosened HBO ruling distant signals superstations cable networks iii 1984 MAJOR deregulation iv 1992 reregulated Clinton over consumer backlash from rate increases v 1996 deregulated AGAIN Telecomm Act vi Cable rates went up 45 in three years vii Since 1984 tie regulation cable rates have gone up 250 Programming Terms a b c rup Strz39p daily program MonFri Checkerboard every other day Mon Weds Fri Hammock putting a program with a weaker audience in between 2 strong programs Tentpole one strong program in the middle of 2 weaker ones Stunting many specials last minute changes Block several of the same type of shows back to back eX ER Grey s Anatomy House Counter sharply different from competition Challenge one program type goes head to head with the same type of programming on a different channel but at the same time Repurposing running a program on different owned channel NBC MSNBC ABC Lifetime P y z 22 Nic a b c d Bridging starting a program after the hourhalf hour mark the strategy behind this is to get people to miss the beginning of another show so they won t change the channel H ot switching seamless way to go from one show to the next no commercial break Lead in the program before uses each show to increase ratings of the next American Idol Fox News Lead out the program after uses each show to increase the ratings of the next Syndication send programming to local stations not sold by networks shows that were once successful on the network are frequently syndicated to local stations First run programs made to be sold to individual stations not major networks never made for primetime television Oprah Wheel of Fortune Off Network shows that were part of primetime networks but are reruns on many other stations programs that are sold to individual stations that need time filled Friends Seinfeld Off Cable originally made for cable but can be seen on regular TV stations Network Affiliates backbone of any network is the group of stations that carries its program stations that receive network programming are known as affiliates Compensationthe traditional way of things networks pay local stations to play their programs Retransmission Feescable systems pay local stations affiliates to play their programs De cit nancing money that producers use to make a program knowing that it may not be what they get back but if the show is a hit they make a huge continuous profit they don t match costs in hopes that a show will be a hit FinSyn Rules financial interest amp syndication rules rules limited network participation in the ownership of programs for them and in subsequent syndication establish in fear of monopoly rather than paying outright fee for their shows networks paid license fees to production companies money from syndication sales reruns around the world goes to producers only 9 networks get nothing abandoned in 1996 Audience Fragmentation split up among channels nightmare for advertisers measurement good for advertising Audience Flow movement of audiences from one program to another audiences will tend to stay with the TV station they are watching until something they dislike shows up on the screen 9 exhibit inertia viewing the same channel until forced to change Broadcasting sending one message to reach many different people at the same time Narrowcasting narrowing in on specific audience he Services STV Subscription TV MMDS Multichannel Distribution wireless cable SMATV Satellite Master Antenna DBSDTH Home satellite 23 culture jamming a Using media techniques to undermine what real media actually does b Using resources of media to contradict those uses 24 media activism a Media activism is about becoming an informed citizen b Citizens have two broad categories of rights i political rights suffrage freedom of speech right of assembly eligibility for public office ii social rights access to health education and welfare services c Participation i means taking part in the process of sharing decisions which affect one s life and the life of one s community ii a way of gaining access to the sites of decision making and power iii Allows regimes of truth to be challenged 25 Video Games a Communities of affinity Building online relationships with other users b World Building thinking about one s interactions online and creating a new world c Play creating a realm in which quotplayquot unproductive something not forced to do is normal 26 Ethnocentric the tendency for us to see everything through our own cultural lens 27 Ownership of Materials a Copyrights i defines the right of an author with regard to his production undoubtedly given him to recompense for his creative work b The Creative Commons i provides a licensing environment that strikes a balance between author rights and public access ii Creating a balance between everything being free and rewarding the author is at the heart of the debates on the 2nd enclosure movement iii The creative commons movements is a response to the pressures of access and reward 28 Audience Measurement a Ratings i How many are watching tonnage ii Who are they demographics age sex iii the percent of TV households watching a program R iv ratings determine how much broadcasters can charge advertisers V the only measure of performance that networks really care about b Shares i the total number of households actually watching a particular program at a specific time divided by the total number of households using the TV HUT TVHH ii share is based only on those HH that actually have their TV sets turned on the share will ALWAYS be larger than the rating c New rating developments i Live ii Live SD later in the same day iii Live 3 within 3 days iv Live 7 within 7 days V C3created in 2007 1 Ratings for commercials 2 advertisers now pay not on how many people watch the program but how many people watch the commercial Vi live within 3 days of TV becoming the standard d Audience measurement issues i Diaries booklets in which you ll out all the programs watched in a week may make you watch less more consciously may be illegible many unusable refuse unreadable stop lling them out good because it tells you about the demographics ii Meters hooked up to your TV for a few years accurate TV data removes all human error traditionally used storage instantaneous audiometers doesn t tell you anything about the demographics or who is in the room iii People Meterscombines diaries and meters to get the most accurate and bene cial information push buttons electronic bracelets cards iv Portable PeopleMeter from Arbitronreplaces diaries picks up codes from all radio V Internet Meters Nielson announced in December 2009 that they will install these meters in national TV samples may fold online Viewing with DVR data in live 3 rating e New Challenges i Online V outofhome ii Ondemand Vi iPods iii interactive TV Vii Nielson s A2 M2 iV Mobile 29 Ways of approaching Media Study a Quantitative audience research i Dominated the rst part of 20Lh century ii Takes constructs or concepts and reduces them to variablesiactual measurements iii Reduces concepts to questions that can be quanti ed b Qualitative audience research i Emerged to measure human attitudes and behaViors ii Focuses on the accounts of people or groups and tries to accurately re ect their attitudes behaViors or culture c Empirical i Empirical data derived from sensory observation d Critical i Focuses on how radical inequalities in the distribution of rewards are presented and accepted even by those get the least as if this were neutral and inevitable e Media Effects i Spiral of silence I Learn about political opinions through media 2 Less likely to voice own thoughts if thought to be in the minority ii Cultivation theory 1 Has to do with content of media What media messages are repeated overtime Behaviors on TV affects behaviors in real life Media shapes thought and behavior Creates a Homogenizedmainstream world view Media as an agent of socialization Helps us relate to each other because it gives us common pop culture 8 Primarily cultivating TV in home and sellingbuying things commercialism 3095 iii Agenda setting 1 Power of news to determine the issues we think are important f Correlation vs causation i Correlation 1 Two or more events that appear to occur together in a systematic way ii Causation 1 One event is the direct result of the other event iii Correlation does not equal causation g Political economy i Study of social relations especially power relations that concerned with production distribution and consumption of resources ii The study of control and survival in social life 1 Control a how society organizes itself and manages its affairs b Control is political because it shapes relationships within a community 2 Survival a How people produce what they need to reproduce themselves and keep society going b Produces necessities food drink healthcare c Survival is mainly economic because it involves the process of production and reporduction h Cultural studies i Each culture has its own worldview or expectations about is cultural artifacts human conduct and identity i Media Industry Labor i The line 1 Division between creative and technical a Above the line creative work producers director cinematographer etc b Below the line technical work lighting craft material supplies hardwork etc ii Residuals 1 Get paid scale or contract 2 Payment for repeat use a Every time it gets shown anywere you ll get a little money 3 Above line direct residuals 4 Below line residuals to union health and pension funds iii Scale 1 Minimum that guildsunions allow to be paid iv Contract payments 1 Negotiate how much you ll get paid for celtain things V Technical vs creative labor 1 Creative a Valued different with compensation b Work for hire i Employer is legal author of workers production ii Employer retains ownership of workers creative output iii Not just employers but also freelancers 1 When made on special commission as if by employer iv Aren t owning your creative output LECTURES Lecture 1 In the Beginning 0 Broadcast TV always commercially supported 0 Most early shows had a single sponsor 0 Ad agencies often involved in production of the program on behalf of their client the advertiserr Example 39 product placement new thing 39 Fairly modern humor Now 0 Most commercial TV sells spot ads rather than running singlesponsored shows except as special events 0 Avajls can be as short as 10 seconds or up to 2 minutes with experiments ranging down to 5 seconds Clustered into interruptions in the programs called breaks or pods A typical Primetime network program that runs for 1 hour is actually only 4244 minutes long The rest of that hour is lled with promos How avails are sold 39 Up front sales Months before show airs Price based on estimated audience provided by ad agencies and guarantee provided by networks Price is then negotiated Make goods refunds made to advertisers when a guaranteed rating is not procured given in time not money 39 Up Front Market Ads sold long before 39 Scatter Market Ads sold as needed Pay more than would for upfront 39 Pre emptive sales Sort of last minute either with 2 weeks notice or up right until time of broadcast Much higher price What Ad buyers buy 0 Cost per point cost of each ratings point purchased 0 Cost per thousand CPM cost of reaching 1000 viewers 0 Look for 2 things 39 Frequency average number of times a household saw the spot 39 Reach percent of potential viewers who saw the spot When buying TV ads looks for schedules with highest frequency and reach Request Avails Buyers may request ratings demographic reach and frequency Barter for avails usually for syndication Trade Deal Exchange commercial time for goods or service Per Inquiry Paid according to inquiries or sales rather than ratings Options are getting convoluted in how programs get to our homes Programming Def strategies invovled in searching out and acquiring program materials and tting them into a coherent service 2 main aspects Finding and developing shows Scheduling them Programming terms Strip same show on MonFri at same time Checkerboard every other day now rare Audience ow keeping an audience watching channel Appointed show making time for a show in your life Hammock place weak show in between two strong ones Tentpole use really good show to hold up channel for evening Stunting many specials last minute changes Block Several of the same type backtoback Counter sha1ply different from competition 39 Provide NFL so ABC has Desperate Housewives to appeal to non football fans Challengeblunting headtohead with the same program type Repurposing running program on different owned Channel NBCgtMSNBC ABCgtLifetime Hot switching seamless from one program to the next Lecture 2 Programming Filling the hours from a TV station view point 0 Local Source Advantages 39 Know audience better 39 All your to do whatever you want Disadvantages 39 No big budget to produce great shows like mentalist 39 Economy of sale bugger budget provide better shows 247 Buy programming from national network that everyone loves watching and get free advertising too 39 Charge more in heavily populated areas Syndicator 39 Groups working together and spread out 39 Good at distributing and selling shows 39 Buyingleasing shows from company that makes shows Go to each DMA and offer a channel exclusive rights to a program Can charge less of show has national ads included 39 2 different kinds of shows First run syndicated shows new episodes sold to syndicator syndicator distrubutes Ex Oprah Wheel of Fortune Not locally produced OffNetwork Syndicated shows buy a show already popular or a network and show it on your channel anytime Ex reruns Affiliate with a large network 39 Network feed Sending program through satellite Paying you to show it because includes national ads and promos for networks Day Parts Morning Talkshows Afternoon game showsreality Early Evening Family time 12 hour before primetime local or syndicated time Later evening Primetime Network most concerned with you clearing primetime Biggest audience during this time High affiliate clearance rates depend on the market Give most valuable time away to big networks Programming Filling the Hours from the view of a TV show 0 Pitching Ideas Elevator Pitch hardhitting quick pitch very brief Spitballing exchange of ideas while explaining your show 39 Be able to give more elaborate description setting plot characters They interrupt and give ideas You keep going incorporating their ideas but also keeping your own Have different length versions If they like your show you ll be asked to do a treatment 0 Treatment Few pages that summarizes your show plot summary characters etc Out of 6000 pitches want 1000 treatments 0 Feedback Usually want to make it very different from what it is 0 Money for script Stepdeal taking development of show step by step Give you little money at each step 39 Way for networks to get out of doing show Get about 400 shows O 40ish page script of 1st episode Give you more feedback Networks make judgements and start thinking about what slots need to be lled would this show added in constitute good ow Would it not be too expensive Ne gotional Contract Get production company to help produce it because don t have the money Networks give you 4 million to shoot it 1 change to impress networks Only ask for 100 pilots Show pilot Decide yes or no Make more feedback Commit to 12 season if up front market goes well 12 season 13 episodes gives them way to get out Deficit Financing Going into debt to make show episodes Fin Syn O 0000 Lecture 3 Networks cannot own shows they show Stopped being enforced 1991 Telecommunications Act of 1996 got rid of Fin Syn Networks now take large out because own part of it As soon as Fin Syn stopped networks could operate and own Mergers happened frequently Creativity O O 0 There is an 85 failure rate Don39t have to come up with this great big new idea because 85 of the time you will fail Many more failures then wins With a big star doesn39t mean it will be successful Incentive is After coming up with pilot go back to audience research Ask people if they would watch it Can provide research that they liked the show later one 1970s 0 O O 3 big networks competing for 90 of audience Sitcoms Production idea display 2 points of talent Show off writers funny jokes Actors performances 39 Nothing about the production got in way of j okes or performances Dramas Mostly police detective or superheroes All shot indoor in a sound stage Outdoor scenes shot out in daylight with lots of additional light and showed only what needed to happen for plot to continue Plot is unfolding in front of us 39 Narration 0 All the shows look pretty much the same Using same techniques the visual Whip pans 39 Contact high No aesthetic visual Music 39 Taking canned music free 39 Replaying theme music at a different pace 0 0 degree production value Get the plot developed as efficiently as possible 1980s 0 Deregulation Number of deregulations happen FCC changes control over cable Satellites can be used for commercial uses 0 Rapid growth in a number ofpeople subscribing to cable More channels to ip through 0 Techniques that don t serve a purpose but to look cool Story and music don t add up Distracting edits Flash forwards 39 Flash backs 39 Just gets our attention visually Layering amp compositing No depth surface stuff Use gherish over the top color Visually distract and amuse us Not giving us real insight 0 New techniques make shows like Dragnet really really boring 85 90 watch the networks during primetime but they were having much more channels to look at on cable 0 NBC came up with the idea MTV Cops Top ten songs used as part of the show and incorporate into the narrative Only production rule no earth tones 39 Free to do whatever they wanted even from sequence to sequence Lecture 4 Reality Televison 0 Reality or quotunscriptedquot TV format 0 Has always been a part of TV programming 0 First Wave Late 1980s Reduced production budgets 39 Increased competition for ad dollars Corporate debt following mergers 39 Advertiser driven changes in audience measurements EX people meters De cit Financing Reduced abovetheline costs Bypassed unions and guilds Don39t have the usual pay Use of freelance production crews Not impacted by labor strikes 0 Embraced low end production values Stylistic exhibitionism of lowend production techniques Could be pro table without de cit nancing Capitalize on end of Fin Syn International Distribution Format Licensing Don39t see actual show but sell idea and rules for show 39 Pay a certain amount each episode Lecture 5 Cable Systems 0 Want to supply just payperview on demand Basically paying for everything Have to convince them to carry your channel Cable channel gets a little money from cable subscribers even if they don39t watch the channel Main revenue for channel comes from system operator Lecture 6 Neoliberalism O Comes from economic theory 0 Emphasizes role of market Way of exchanging money for goods 0 Trade and markey is ultimate and fairest arbiter of how wealth is distributed 0 Free market Little regulation by government as possible Want SOME regulations in place but only ones that will bene t them Doesn t want people who work within be involved in unions and labor groups Wants freedom to operate in a certain context 0 People adopt it as an ideology about how culture and society is run Welfare State vs Neoliberalism O Welfare State Government acts on behalf of people to lessen risks 0 Neoliberalism risks are on individual
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