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Notes for February 2 and 4

by: Isabelle Anonas

Notes for February 2 and 4 SPMT 320 002

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > SPMT 320 002 > Notes for February 2 and 4
Isabelle Anonas
GPA 3.006

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About this Document

This is everything that was covered in class.
Psychology of Sport
Jordan Goffena
Class Notes
Sport, Psychology, Group, team, Leadership
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabelle Anonas on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SPMT 320 002 at George Mason University taught by Jordan Goffena in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Sport in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 02/07/16
SPMT 320 February 2-4 SOCIAL PROCESSES AND COMMUNICATION -DISCUSSION- What percent of an athlete’s body is motor learning compared to mental learning? --There’s no specific percentage, mind controls body, mostly internal What’s the best kind of feedback? --Constructive, consistent for younger children. Bandwidth works better for older. Which is used more, blocked or random? --Blocked for youth, depends on the stage of the athlete What can a coach do for athletes’ in the autonomous phase? --Lead in right direction. Feedback, motivate, independence Is there a grey-area between phases? --Yes Positive effects on athletes (vs. non student athletes) • higher grades, expectations, and attainment • greater personal confidence and self-esteem • greater connections with school— that is, greater attachment and support from adults • stronger peer relationships • more academically oriented friends • greater family attachment and more frequent interactions with parents • more restraint in avoiding risky behavior Social Processing in Coaching -Operant Conditioning (connects to Behaviorism) ABC Model – A (Antecedents) Environmental stimuli – B (Behaviors) Behavior the person engages in – C (Contingencies) Consequences to the behavior General Mediational Model – Coach Behavior  Athletes’ perception and recall  Athletes’ evaluative reactions – In other words, what the athlete thinks about an interaction is the mediator between coach behavior and athlete performance. Pre-Reinforcement (Feedback)  Aversive: punishment  Negative environment could worsen situation  Coaches usually use physical punishment (laps, etc.)  Fear affects performance/environment  Participation is big on enjoyment  High-fives are very effective with youth Coach Feedback  Consistent vs. Bandwidth Practice Construction SPMT 320 February 2-4  Blocked vs. Random Practice Type  Top-Down (whole) vs. Bottom-Up (part) Reinforcement • Discriminative stimuli – signals that help guide behavior in order to interact appropriately • Positive Reinforcement – a positive or rewarding stimulus that increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur in the future under the same conditions (i.e., encouraging a behavior by doing something positive; e.g., giving candy to the students who lower their voices appropriately). • Effective Reinforcers • Social reinforcers: • Verbal praise (e.g., good job, great, perfect) • Smile • Non-verbals (e.g., head nod, thumbs up) • Physical contact (e.g., pat on back, high five) • Best to get to know the athlete in order to know what they would like the most • Reinforcing target behaviors • Select particular behaviors, tasks, or goals to consistently reinforce • Rule of 3-5 Shaping • Progressively get more complex as an athlete learns the basic skills/movements/understanding. Timing • Individualize timing of feedback for each athlete • Best to provide feedback directly after the task is performed • Be consistent (not frequent) Reinforcing effort • Implicit theories Reinforcement and motivation • Motivation (chapter 4) • Self-determination theory Reinforcement and mastery • Motivational climate (chapter 4) • Achievement goal theory • Negative Reinforcement – the removal or avoidance of aversive stimuli (i.e., stopping a behavior by doing something negative; e.g., playing loud music to stop students from talking loudly) • Types of Negative Reinforcement • Response cost: removing something positive • Punishment: the presentation of aversive stimuli • Cascading Effect of Punishment on Performance 1. Arouses fear in athletes 2. Athletes develop fear of failure 3. Athletes experience a decrease in enjoyment SPMT 320 February 2-4 4. At the same time, it ironically increases the likelihood of failure 5. Finally, it increases likelihood to “choke” during performance Communication- a multidimensional process that involves sending, receiving, and interpreting messages through a variety of sensory modalities. Senses: visual, auditory, kinesthetic/ proprioceptive SCT  reciprocal causation Effective Communication in the Coaching Context • Effective coaches are: Credible, Trustworthy, and Respectful Communicate through actions, sincerity, genuineness, and social influence Explain, clarify, and individualize instruction to meet athletes’ needs Youth Sport Athletes like coaches who are: Knowledgeable and instructive, supportive and encouraging, enthusiastic and motivated, reliable, fair, and consistent Collegiate Athletes like coaches who are: Open, honest, sincere, approachable, and caring Coach-Team Communication Team Communication Principles: • Impart Clearly expresses procedures and expectations • Inspire Challenge athletes to achieve their best • Monitor Manage progress, short-term and long-term goals Observe and provide performance feedback • Clarify Articulate team progress with athletes • Reinforce Encourage appropriate behavior Coach-Athlete Communication • Be aware of individual difference factors (e.g., prior experience) • Pivotal to interact in ways consistent with your personality and coaching philosophy • Be open, honest, direct, sincere, and consistent • Skillfully use positive reinforcement • Body Language • Provide athletes relative choice & opportunities for initiative taking Athlete-Athlete Communication • Team comes first – Team goals are priority • Give and receive constructive feedback • Listen to your teammates • Accept them who they are • Know the repercussions of gossip; know the difference between gossiping and communicating about each other effectively • Team Goals Communication Effectively as a SEP SPMT 320 February 2-4 • SEP’s have to be able to adapt to the general rules, regulations, procedures, personalities, competitiveness, etc. of the team for which they are working with • Provides optimal push!! (e.g., knows the proper time to challenge athlete knowledge and/or learning; only comes from intently listening to them) Listening Skills  Listening means actively listening- staying attunes, connected, and engaged; showing caring attitude and desire to truly understand what the other person has to say Stay away from  Superficial Listening- hearing message and failing to understand affective meaning  Arrogant Listening Active Listening leads to Reflective Listening- powerful method that demonstrates you are actively listening and striving to fully understand Techniques: Questioning, Clarifying, Encouraging, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing EMPATHIZE  Acquired skill reflecting an overall attitude of genuine concern, caring, and interest  Being understanding of person’s position  Important not to act like you know exactly what they are experiencing, but just relate 4 OLVES: Involve, Resolve, Absolve, And Evolve SPMT 320 February 2-4 GROUP/TEAM DYNAMICS AND LEADERSHIP -DISCUSSION- Does a coach need to take psychology classes? --No Is positive reinforcement effective for athletes who are in the autonomous phase? --It depends on the athlete Is it appropriate to punish athletes? If so, when? --In some instances: attitude during game, slacking during practice (this builds character) Cohesion- dynamic process which is reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs  Ex. Being with team vs. living with team  Different perception Team Cohesion Model (Carron, Widmeyer, and Brawley) • Group Integration (GI)- athlete’s perception of closeness of team. • Individual Attractions (ATG)- athlete’s motivation to stay with team and feelings about team. • Both influence perceptions about the team. Groups members focus on: • Task Cohesion – task orientation toward achieving group goals. • Social Cohesion – social orientation toward developing/maintaining social relationships and activities in group. Cohesiveness • Individual Attraction to Group (ATG) ATG – Task ATG – Social • Group Integration (GI) GI – Task GI - Social How To Build Cohesion: • Set team goals • Understand & accept team role • Efficient team meetings & practices • Effective leadership • Examine norms and communication • Examine relationships • Be proactive with weaknesses • Build mutual respect Negative Correlates of Cohesion • Athletes reported High social could lead to: wasting time, poor focus, problems with communication, social isolation High task could lead to: poor social relations, communication problems, less enjoyment, increased pressures SPMT 320 February 2-4 (e.g., Self-Handicapping – a cognitive strategy by which people avoid effort in the hopes of keeping potential failure from hurting self-esteem) Positive Correlates of Cohesion • Situational (environmental & team factors) level of competition (higher in younger teams) team size (higher with smaller teams) Team roles, norms, goals, and outcomes • Personal individual cognition (higher team cohesion took more responsibility, lower when took less responsibility for loss) member behavior (higher team cohesion with conformity, stability, adherence) Research in this area are all possibilities, not sure  Conformity is good for goals to be cohesive, so no one is left behind Personal Factors • Remember Triplett’s bike experiment? • Connection with Zajonc’s (1965) discovery of Social Facilitation Theory • Positive aspect: When performing a well-learned or simple task, the presence of other people had a positive effect on performance. • Negative aspect: When performing a task that is less familiar or more complex, the presence of other people had a negative effect on performance. Ringlemann Effect is the tendency for individual members of a group to become increasingly less productive as the size of their group increases. The sum of parts is NOT equal to the whole Due to loss of coordination Ingham’s contribution (Ingham et al., 1974) Took the same study and determined that the decrease in productivity was due to motivational factors Social Loafing- tendency for individuals to decrease the amount of effort they expend when completing a group task compared to the amount of effort expended when alone Positive Correlates of Cohesion • Leadership Coaching Behavior (higher team cohesion with more training and instruction, social- support, positive feedback) Coach Decision Making (higher team cohesion with democratic style, athlete perceptions of coach-athlete relationship) Leadership- behavioral process of influencing individuals and groups toward set goals Coaches’ Leadership Behavior: Relational Approach, Integrated Model, Developmental Approach, Multidimensional Model, Meditational Model, Working Model, and Motivational Model Coaches’ Leadership Behavior Social-Cognitive Meditational Model SPMT 320 February 2-4  Addition of Situational and Individual Difference Factors Motivational Model Autonomy-Supportive Behaviors Provide choice within specific rules and limits Provide rationale for tasks and limits Acknowledge other person’s feelings and perspectives Provide opportunity for initiative taking and independent work Provide non-controlling competence feedback Avoid controlling behaviors Prevent ego-involvement Controlling Behaviors Using tangible rewards Expressing controlling feedback Expressing excessive personal control Using intimidation for communication Promotion of ego-involvement Utilizing conditional regard Controlling behaviors thwart satisfaction of basic psychological needs and subsequent intrinsic motivation


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