Anthropology Week 1 Notes
Anthropology Week 1 Notes ANTH 1100 350
University of Memphis
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annika Coley on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1100 350 at University of Memphis taught by Dr. Barton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Biol Anth & Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Memphis.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
Anthropology Week 1 Notes What is Anthropology? Anthropology o Study of people and their origins and development where ever they have been found o Field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology o 4 branches Biological Archaeological Linguistic Cultural Holism o An attempt within social and cultural anthropology to refer to analysis of a society as a whole while refusing to break society into component parts o Impossible to actually do Physical anthropology o Study of humans from a biological perspective with the framework of evolution o Investigates the relationship between biology and culture Paleoanthropology Study of earlier Hominids, modern humans, and other bipedal relatives Studying the emergence of humans and how they’ve evolved Human variation How and why traits vary Archaeology o Study of people from the past by analyzing material culture they leave behind Artifacts Tools and arrowheads Features Foundations and fireplaces Archaeologist o Historical Reconstructs cultures of people who used writing and have historical documents written about them o Prehistoric Study of humans and cultures that existed before history was recorded Linguistic o Study of the relationship between language and social interactions Cultural o Study of beliefs, practices, and social networks of people o 2 methods Ethnography Descriptive single culture focus Ethnology Comparative generalizations of cultures Ethnocentrism o Viewing another culture’s customs as inferior to your own Cultural Relativism o Cultural traits are best understood when viewed within cultural context Emic approach o Describes culture in terms of categories, concepts, and perceptions of the people that are being studied o Considered to be the insider view Etic approach o Describing a culture based off of one’s own categories and concepts o Considered outsider view Value of anthropology o Individual Helps to better understand one’s own culture o Societal Helps solve societal problems Evolution o For the majority of history we have been scavengers We looked for food that was low in fat, sugar, and salt because that was most of what available in nature and we had to be fit to survive in rugged conditions o Eventually we became hunter-gathers or foragers Evolution o Change in the genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next o It is a Theory A well substantiated explanation of natural phenomenon supported by evidence and testing Gravity is a theory Scientific Method o An approach to research in which you identify a problem, research it, form a hypothesis about it, and collect and analyze data for it o Can apply this approach to the study of humans and ancestors within anthropology Hypothesis o Temporary explanation of a phenomenon that uses evidence to prove or disprove it Culture o A set of learned behaviors o All aspects of human adaption o Can change from one generation to the next Biocultural evolution o Mutual interactive evolution of human biology and culture o Developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolution o Concept that biology makes culture possible o Adaptation-functional response of organisms to the environment Natural selection o The success of a species is based off of culture Species o A group of organisms that can produce fit or fertile offspring Society o A group of people who share a common cultural core o Humans come together through the idea of culture to create a society Enculturation o Process by which individuals learn the values, beliefs, and practices of others within their society Genetics o The study of gene structure and action and of the patterns of inheritance of traits Primatology o Study of biology and behavior of nonhuman primates Osteology o The study of skeletal remains
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