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Anthropology Week 1 Notes

by: Annika Coley

Anthropology Week 1 Notes ANTH 1100 350

Annika Coley
University of Memphis
GPA 3.99
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About this Document

The first week of notes we covered
Biol Anth & Prehistory
Dr. Barton
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Annika Coley on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1100 350 at University of Memphis taught by Dr. Barton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Biol Anth & Prehistory in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Memphis.

Similar to ANTH 1100 350 at University of Memphis

Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr


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Date Created: 02/07/16
Anthropology Week 1 Notes What is Anthropology?  Anthropology o Study of people and their origins and development where ever they have been found o Field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology o 4 branches  Biological  Archaeological  Linguistic  Cultural  Holism o An attempt within social and cultural anthropology to refer to analysis of a society as a whole while refusing to break society into component parts o Impossible to actually do  Physical anthropology o Study of humans from a biological perspective with the framework of evolution o Investigates the relationship between biology and culture  Paleoanthropology  Study of earlier Hominids, modern humans, and other bipedal relatives  Studying the emergence of humans and how they’ve evolved  Human variation  How and why traits vary  Archaeology o Study of people from the past by analyzing material culture they leave behind  Artifacts  Tools and arrowheads  Features  Foundations and fireplaces  Archaeologist o Historical  Reconstructs cultures of people who used writing and have historical documents written about them o Prehistoric  Study of humans and cultures that existed before history was recorded  Linguistic o Study of the relationship between language and social interactions  Cultural o Study of beliefs, practices, and social networks of people o 2 methods  Ethnography  Descriptive single culture focus  Ethnology  Comparative generalizations of cultures  Ethnocentrism o Viewing another culture’s customs as inferior to your own  Cultural Relativism o Cultural traits are best understood when viewed within cultural context  Emic approach o Describes culture in terms of categories, concepts, and perceptions of the people that are being studied o Considered to be the insider view  Etic approach o Describing a culture based off of one’s own categories and concepts o Considered outsider view  Value of anthropology o Individual  Helps to better understand one’s own culture o Societal  Helps solve societal problems Evolution o For the majority of history we have been scavengers  We looked for food that was low in fat, sugar, and salt because that was most of what available in nature and we had to be fit to survive in rugged conditions o Eventually we became hunter-gathers or foragers  Evolution o Change in the genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next o It is a Theory  A well substantiated explanation of natural phenomenon supported by evidence and testing  Gravity is a theory  Scientific Method o An approach to research in which you identify a problem, research it, form a hypothesis about it, and collect and analyze data for it o Can apply this approach to the study of humans and ancestors within anthropology  Hypothesis o Temporary explanation of a phenomenon that uses evidence to prove or disprove it  Culture o A set of learned behaviors o All aspects of human adaption o Can change from one generation to the next  Biocultural evolution o Mutual interactive evolution of human biology and culture o Developing culture further influences the direction of biological evolution o Concept that biology makes culture possible o Adaptation-functional response of organisms to the environment  Natural selection o The success of a species is based off of culture  Species o A group of organisms that can produce fit or fertile offspring  Society o A group of people who share a common cultural core o Humans come together through the idea of culture to create a society  Enculturation o Process by which individuals learn the values, beliefs, and practices of others within their society  Genetics o The study of gene structure and action and of the patterns of inheritance of traits  Primatology o Study of biology and behavior of nonhuman primates  Osteology o The study of skeletal remains


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