COMM 415 Nonverbal Notes 2/2 & 2/4
COMM 415 Nonverbal Notes 2/2 & 2/4 COMM 415
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Cracchiolo on Sunday February 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 415 at University of Arizona taught by Chris Segrin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Nonverbal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 02/07/16
2/2 Gaze (Eye Contact) Gaze is… • Salient- stands out • Arousing • Involving- draws us into social interactions Functions of Gaze • Primary: regulate information input o Let people know we are receptive, or not • Attraction • Dominance (ex: sports) Behavioral Terminology • Gaze or faced-directed gaze- looking at face (where on face is not certain) • Gaze aversion- look away “I’m busy” “Can’t talk right now” • Mutual gaze- both people engaging in face-directed gaze at same time- actually rare in conversation The Range of Human Gaze • Total gaze during conversation: 18-70% • Looking while speaking: 20-65% • Looking while listening: 30-80% • Mutual gaze: 10-30% Individual Differences • Sex o Female>Male o Even in infants o Female visual monitoring effect • Age o Young & old> middle aged • Personality Traits Associated with Gaze o 1. Extroversion (gaze more)/introversion (gaze less) o 2. Self-monitoring- consciously change behavior to best fit into social surroundings § High self-monitor engage most in Gazing o 3. Social anxiety § High anxiety=little gaze § Social Anxiety and Gaze Aversion ú Participants viewed video clips ú 13 involved positive feedback ú 13 involved negative social feedback ú computerized eye tracking system on computer ú people with social anxiety disorder exhibited greater global gaze avoidance in response to both positive and negative video clips, compared to controls- don’t want any kind of spotlight on them o 4. Dominance § More dominant people use gaze more freely Speaker and Listener Roles • %LL > %LS • LL= looking while listening • LS= looking while speaking • Norm of attention- most societies, when someone is talking to us, we feel like we need to show them we are paying attention, its polite/respectful • Look away at beginning of speaking turn- planning • Look toward at end of turn Using gaze to manage cognitive load • Abstract shapes described to children and adults • Children made more correct responses when they looked at the floor while listening to the description • Adults performed equally well when looking at the floor or face of speaker during description • Looking at another’s face increases cognitive load • We manage this by looking away during mentally challenging tasks Breed and Colaiuta (1974) • Sampled the visual attentiveness of college students in social psychology lectures • Samples were 20 sec per class for 15 class sessions • Those who received the highest midterm and final scores spent more time looking at the instructor and less time :looking around” than those who performed poorly 2/4 looking away infers that you are anxious credible people make more eye contact Gaze and Perceptions of Attractiveness • Ss viewed 40 pics of unfamiliar models • Brain activity monitored with functional magnetic resonance imaging • Gaze directed at Ss: brain activity in ventral striatum (=) correlated with perceptions of attractiveness • Gaze directed away from the Ss: brain activity in brain (-) correlated with perceptions of attractiveness • Ventral striatum associated with reward prediction • This region is activated when deciding gaze Attractiveness and Perceptions of Gaze • Participants viewed attractive and unattractive faces that gazed or averted gaze • Participants judged whether the face was gazing at them • Attractive faces increased participants’ tendency to perceive eye contact • Self-referential positivity bias- you want attractive people to look at you • Facial context influences decoding of gaze Preference for Gazing Faces • Participants viewed photos of gazing or non-gazing faces • They had a preference for that faces that were gazing at them Processing of Gaze and Emotion • Ss watched video taped actors looking at or away • Asked if actors looked friendly or hostile • PET scans while watching clips Decoding Gaze and Emotion o The brain activates specific regions in response to direct gaze and perception of emotion o Gaze makes others’ emotions salient o Activity in amygdala and prefrontal cortex (emotion) o Similar brain regions for decoding gaze and emotion Sex Differences in Gaze Decoding 1979 • Students participated in a series of 12 minute interviews • Females felt more observed than males • Feeling observed was unrelated to the confederate’s level of gaze Sex Differences in Gaze Decoding 2004 • female students lead to believe that they would soon be interacting with male, female, or no one • then completed questionnaires • those who anticipated gaze form a male reported greater body shame and social physique anxiety (gaze never actually happened) • self-objectification- I begin to see myself as an object when I think that others are going to be looking at me Sex Differences in Gaze Decoding 2011 • objectifying gaze (brief gaze at chest) from opposite sex confederate • followed by math performance test and desire for suture interaction measure • objectifying gaze caused decrements in women’s math performance but not men’s • objectifying gaze increased women’s, but not men’s motivation for subsequent interactions with their partner Interactive aspects of gaze • (= or +): increased gaze -> increased gaze (reciprocal response) • (-): increased gaze -> decreased gaze (compensatory response) • being observed -> increased arousal Developmental Aspects of Gaze • Non-human Primates: gaze = threat • Infants: look more at adults with eyes open vs. closed- WAY more gaze when eyes are open o Look more at adult with headband vs. blindfold – Headband = WAY more gaze o Infants recoding interacting with gazing mother or father § When infants displayed a vocalization in combo with a smile, they also gazed at parents 80% of time § Infants use combo of vocals, positive facial expressions and gaze § Gaze at parents directs the expression of the emotion § Infants gaze more at mom than dad • Children: o Gaze in Autistic Children- believed hat gaze aversion in autistic kids reflects attempt to reduce external stimulation, due to already high levels of arousal o They observed 8 male autistic kids playing o They were almost always solitary rather than interacting with others o Put 5 drawings on wall, autistic kids spend less time looking at human face and more time looking at inanimate faces, non-autistic kids are opposite • Gaze in kids with Autism Spectrum Disorder o Children with ASD look significantly less and for shorter lapses of time at the experimenter o Kids with ASD look downwards and made more extensive use of their lateral fields Adults • Initiating and Avoiding Interaction o Eye contact is a prerequisite to starting convo in a live setting o Termination of gaze signals the end of convo o Why? – Eye contact primes the brain to process language • People laid in MRI scanner • Had convo with partner thru screen • Look, look (mutual gaze) • Look, not look (participant looks, partner doesn't) • Not look, look • Look picture (saw still photo of partner • Look yourself (saw self in mirror) o Parts of brain used to process language and make inferences of partners intentions are same parts activated by mutual gaze Emotion and Gaze • Decrease with sadness, depression, sorrow • Decrease with anxiety (esp. social) o People with social phobia gaze less at partner than those with general anxiety or normal controls • Decrease with embarrassment (allows for disengagement) Lying and Credibility • Instructing people to lie causes no change or increased gaze • Videotapes of criminal suspects • Had corroborating info (info to prove) • When lying, 55% shoed more gaze aversion • 44% showed less gaze aversion – stepped up their gaze • *gaze is not a reliable indicator of deception Lying and Credibility • Lairs displayed more deliberate eye contact than truth tellers • Gaze aversion did not differ between truth tellers and liars • Liars are more inclined than truth tellers to report that they had displayed deliberate eye contact to convince the interviewer and to check whether the interviewer believed them
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